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请教大全-13-1,大全-13-14

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发表于 2003-4-26 19:44:00 | 显示全部楼层

请教大全-13-1,大全-13-14

1. Cable-television spokesperson: Subscriptions to
cable television are a bargain in comparison to
"free" television. Remember that "free" televi-
sion is not really free. It is consumers, in the
end, who pay for the costly advertising that
supports "free" television.

Which of the following, if true, is most damaging to
the position of the cable-television spokesperson?
(A) Consumers who do not own television sets are
less likely to be influenced in their purchasing
decisions by television advertising than are
consumers who own television sets.
(B) Subscriptions to cable television include access
to some public-television channels, which do
not accept advertising.
(C) For locations with poor television reception, cable
television provides picture quality superior to
that provided by free television.
(D) There is as much advertising on many cable-
television channels as there is on "free" tele-
vision channels.
(E) Cable-television subscribers can choose which
channels they wish to receive, and the fees
vary accordingly.

答案:D,我不明白D为什么是削弱?
14. Among the more effective kinds of publicity that
publishers can get for a new book is to have excerpts
of it published in a high-circulation magazine soon
before the book is published. The benefits of such
excerption include not only a sure increase in sales
but also a fee paid by the magazine to the book's publisher.

Which of the following conclusions is best supported
by the information above?
(A) The number of people for whom seeing an
excerpt of a book in a magazine provides an
adequate substitute for reading the whole
book is smaller than the number for whom
the excerpt stimulates a desire to read the book.
(B) Because the financial advantage of excerpting a
new book in a magazine usually accrues to
the book's publisher, magazine editors are
unwilling to publish excerpts from new books.
(C) In calculating the total number of copies that a book
   has sold, publishers include sales of copies of
   magazines that featured an excerpt of the book.
(D) The effectiveness of having excerpts of a book
published in a magazine, measured in terms
of increased sales of a book, is proportional
to the circulation of the magazine in which
the excerpts are published.
(E) Books that are suitable for excerpting in high-
circulation magazines sell more copies than
books that are not suitable for excerpting.

答案:A

请问怎么得来的呢?这种归纳的结论题有什么好办法吗?

谢谢。

发表于 2003-4-26 22:08:00 | 显示全部楼层
第一题:有线电视的发言人说,公共电视并不是免费的,那些广告支持的电视实际是观众买单了。D的意思是说,有线电视也充斥着广告,所以发言人关于免费的公共电视是靠广告支撑的而有线电视收费的辩解就显得无力了,你既收费又卖广告,呵呵,所以是销弱。

第二题:A的意思是原本想买来读的,看了缩写后,觉得不想读了的人一定比那些原本没想读,看了缩写后想读的人少,这就是表明,缩写本带来的读者比减少的读者多,这就是文中销量增加的注释呀!
发表于 2003-4-26 22:46:00 | 显示全部楼层
我试试把我的解题思路讲一讲.

1. 读问题, 知道是weaken类型. 并且是weaken cable provider (因为有时原文有两种意见,所以要清楚是weaken哪个观点或理论).

读原文. 第一句(A), 读完知道是应该是一个结论. 有时会有两个以上的结论, 分为sub-conclusion和conclusion. sub-cobclusion都应该服务于final conclusion. Premises和assumption可以分别支持sub-conclusion和conclusion. (我说得很啰唆, 在做题是一般不用去区分sub和final, 读懂题自然就知道了)

读完第二句 (B), 知道这也是一个conclusion, 或是sub-conclusion. 意思上明显是支持第一句.

读完第三句 (C), 知道是一个premise, 支持第二句.

这样, 读完原文就知道其逻辑推理过程: consumers pay for advertising (C) --> free TV not cheap (B) --> cable is a bargain (A). 还要知道所牵涉的事物: advertising, TV, cable, COST

weaken题型有很多类型, 可以否定原文的依据, 如:没有或有不多advertising, 或advertising已经不costly, 或者不是consumers pay for advertising. 这种题都是直接针对premises, 否认其真实性或可靠性, 其它的例子还有否定问卷调查的结果 by questioning the objectivity or representativeness of the survey.

还有一种类型是否定原文的assumption. 例如此题. 如果问题是cable provider的assumption是什么, 答案是? 就是D的一部分: cable service没有同类的consumers要pay for的advertising. 如果这个assumption(必要条件)不成立, 原文结论不成立.

同理, 此题答案也可以是cable service的某一特点约等于free TV的advertising. 也是否定assumption.

2. 这是一道很好的例题. 它的选项有迷惑性在于不止一个选项读上去是正确答案. 实际上, 根据所问问题, A,B,D,E都可能是正确答案. 这也是我认为做CR不能单凭直觉的原因. 因为平时做了很多真题, 看了很多答案, 如果不认真理解对错的原因, 而是凭对正确答案的"脸熟", 此题很可能误选.

此题关键在于问题. 是结论或推论.

首先认真读题: 第一句(A), 可能是结论, 说在high-circulation的杂志上excerpting soon before publishing有效; 第二句是premises: increased sales (B1)和fees paid by M (B2). 所牵涉的事物: books, soon before it is published, high-circulation Mag, icreased sales, fees.

推论题(inference)一般可以用取非来做. 即取非后原结论不成立. A为答案. A的意思是读完摘录的人中, 更想买此书的人数要大与看了摘录就不想买此书的人.取非后, B1不成立, 则结论错.

下面我解释一下其它选项:

B看上去是削弱题(weakean, cast doubt)答案. 但我认为不是. 这正体现了ETS的tricky. 由B本身不能反驳原文的逻辑关系A-->B1 and B2. 既, 即使杂志不情愿刊登, 此逻辑关系依然hold. 如果把原题改动一下, 结论变为:A-->在杂志上刊登摘录是一种很popular的方法, 则Bweaken. 因为杂志不愿意刊登, 所以popular的可能性小.

D是support题型的答案. 和A一样, 含有数学概念, 也极象正确答案. 但是我在以前的回复中讲过, 数学概念稍微复杂一些, A是很绝对的比较,N>M, 而D是间接的比较N=rM. 如果此等式不成立(取非),原结论成立吗? 当然. 如果N=M+p, 结论一样成立. 所以不是inference

E也象正确答案, 但是它是weaken结论:所有书在杂志上excerpt后都卖得一样好. 和原文无关.

还有,做CR时不要跳跃式阅读,要抓住每个关键的名词,动词,形容词和副词.比如此题中的状语soon before it is published完全可以据此出一题:weaken 答案:人们在临近书发行时看到excerpt就不想买了.

我的建议是:读懂文章,找到相关事物,分析选项.








[此贴子已经被作者于2003-4-26 23:33:38编辑过]
 楼主| 发表于 2003-4-26 23:20:00 | 显示全部楼层
mindfree and cranberry,

非常感谢,收获太大了!!!!
发表于 2003-5-2 23:09:00 | 显示全部楼层
第2提的选项A选对了,可是当时没有看懂
这中感觉很怪


[此贴子已经被作者于2003-5-2 23:09:34编辑过]
发表于 2003-10-6 13:42:00 | 显示全部楼层
谢谢!
发表于 2003-10-8 10:20:00 | 显示全部楼层
跑来跑去找高手,就在这里吗!
发表于 2003-10-18 09:32:00 | 显示全部楼层
其实解题哪有新东方的人说得那么复杂
脑子有一个逻辑的picture是不错
但是关键还是要理解意思
有些题目翻成中文一眼就看出来了
哪有那么多的解题方法啊
在脑子绕了几个弯子 早就晕了
发表于 2003-10-26 17:18:00 | 显示全部楼层
高见!
发表于 2003-10-27 02:42:00 | 显示全部楼层
我做逻辑题,脑子;里并没有那么多分析,我只是根据自己对意思的理解,找出解题的思路。基本上还可以。顺便想问问,是不是一定要有很强的什么前提啊。结论之类的概念。
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