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[梦之队日记] 龙驾马的托福备考日记 Long Gamma

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 楼主| 发表于 2020-2-11 10:32:09 | 显示全部楼层
Day 37
2月11日
TPO 10 听力

对话
摄影创造讨论 错1对4
书店退书 错1对4

讲座
鲸鱼进化 错3对3
美洲作物 错1对5
磷的循环 错2对4
童年记忆 错2对4

今天做的比较平均,每篇都错了一些题。其中生物题比较差,因为开头几个关键信息就没听懂,后面一路没跟上。其他几篇难度还好,总体来说还是有些听力内容没把握到,做题时候还是要靠猜

需要复习的长难句:
Is it better for the environment to buy locally grown produce that is not certified as organic or is it better to get organically grown fruits and vegetables that must be trucked in from California, three thousand miles away.

When photons and light waves hit objects in our atmosphere, water droplets oxygen and nitrogen molecules, dust particles and so on, these objects are illuminated, they are lit up, and those things are also being lit by all our street lights, by the Moon, all these ambient light.

Cecilia Beaux was born in 1855, and after learning to paint and studying with several important artists of the time, Beaux became known as one of the best portrait painters in the United States.

Now, the undefined background also shows how Cecilia Beaux was influenced by the French Impressionists, who believed, like Beaux, in a personal rather than conventional approach to their subject matter.

Rhizomes from one plant grow through the muddy soil and interlock with those of other nearby plants, the plants form a kind of colony, a community that will thrive and Rhizomes from one plant grow through the muddy soil and interlock with those of other nearby plants, the plants form a kind of colony, a community that will thrive and perish together. together.

By adjusting the osmotic pressure so that the cells are always fully inflated, the plant is able to withstand great pressure before snapping, so Spartinas may look like simple marsh grass, but they are really a wonder of chemistry, physics and structural engineering that allows them to survive and even thrive in an environment in which most plants will wilt and die within hours.

需要复习的单词:
literature
circumstance
atmosphere
gadget
interpretation
impressionist
portraiture
perish
saline
 楼主| 发表于 2020-2-12 10:57:09 | 显示全部楼层
Day 38
2月12日
TPO 9 阅读

美洲移民  错3对11
教学反思 错5对9
夏威夷植物 错2对12

三篇文章,难词不多,长句比较多,但难句子主要在教育那篇。还是老情况,太抽象的内容,比较难。无论是文章,句子,出现较多抽象概念的话,理解起来就吃力。

需要复习的句子

The first water craft theory about this migration was that around 11,000-12,000 years ago there was an ice-free corridor stretching from eastern Beringia to the areas of North America south of the great northern glaciers.

But belief in this ice-free corridor began to crumble when paleoecologist Glen MacDonald demonstrated that some of the most important radiocarbon dates used to support the existence of an ice-free corridor were incorrect.

Support is growing for the alternative theory that people using watercraft, possibly skin boats, moved southward from Beringia along the Gulf of Alaska and then southward along the Northwest coast of North America possibly as early as 16,000 years ago.

This route would have enabled humans to enter southern areas of the Americas prior to the melting of the continental glaciers. Until the early 1970s, most archaeologists did not consider the coast a possible migration route into the Americas because geologists originally believed that during the last Ice Age the entire Northwest Coast was covered by glacial ice.

The coastal hypothesis has gained increasing support in recent years because the remains of large land animals, such as caribou and brown bears, have been found in southeastern Alaska dating between 10,000 and 12,500 years ago.

This was justified by the view that reflective practice could help teachers to feel more intellectually involved in their role and work in teaching and enable them to cope with the paucity of scientific fact and the uncertainty of knowledge in the discipline of teaching.

The teachers were taken through a program of talking about teaching events, moving on to reflecting about specific issues in a supported, and later an independent, manner.

Further observation revealed the tendency of teachers to evaluate events rather than review the contributory factors in a considered manner by, in effect, standing outside the situation.

The researchers estimate that the initial training of the teachers to view events objectively took between 20 and 30 hours, with the same number of hours again being required to practice the skills of reflection.

Becoming a reflective practitioner requires extra work (Jaworski, 1993) and has only vaguely defined goals with, perhaps, little initially perceivable reward and the threat of vulnerability.

It is significant that the earliest living thing that built communities on these islands are examples of symbiosis, a phenomenon that depends upon the close cooperation of two or more forms of life and a principle that is very important in island communities.

These plants propagate by producing spores-tiny fertilized cells that contain all the instructions for making a new plant-but the spore are unprotected by any outer coating and carry no supply of nutrient.

Remarkably resistant to the vicissitudes of ocean travel, they can survive prolonged immersion in saltwater when they come to rest on warm beaches and the conditions are favorable, the seed coats soften.

需要复习的单词

marine
mammal
corridor
unglaciated
systematic
abstraction
paucity
perceivable
inconsistency
vulnerability
propagate
angiosperm
prolong
immersion



 楼主| 发表于 2020-2-13 09:59:37 | 显示全部楼层
Day 39
2月13日
TPO 9 听力
对话
论文选题  错1对4
归还书籍 错0对5

讲座
苔原灌木 错4对2
沙漠湖泊 错2对4
舞台设计 错4对2
动物交流 错1对5

这次的对话,论文那篇其实有点难度,有些细节没听出来,靠猜测做的还行。但学生讲座的听力做的很不好。有两篇的确比较难,句子里的内容,信息量很大,而且如果不熟悉场景的话,不容易在脑中想象出具体的画面。像舞台布景那篇里就有很多这样的句子,比如 create realistic moving scenes that change before the audiences' eyes. 还是要加强练习,特别是对信息量大的句子。

需要复习的句子:


Well, it may be biological processes that occur in the soil in the winter, that cause increased shrub growth in the summer, and here's how: there are "microbes", microscopic organisms that live in the soil.

And the snow, which blankets the ground in the winter, actually has an insulating effect on the soil beneath it.

And because of this loop, which is promoted by warmer temperatures in winter and spring, well, it looks like the tundra may be turning into shrub land.

Once is established, shrub land thrives, particularly in the Arctic, because Arctic shrubs are good at taking advantage of increased nutrients in the soil, better than other Arctic plants.

Now, the older lakes, about half of the formations, the ones started forming 37000 years ago, the limestone formation we see, they're up to a kilometer long, but only a few meters wide, and they're scattered along the desert floor, in valleys between the dunes.

Another difference, very important today for distinguishing between older lake beds and newer ones, is the location of the limestone formations.


So, during the second rainy period, the dunes were kind of chopped up at the top, full of hollows and ridges, and these hollows would've captured the rain right there on the top.

Now, in the grassland of Lake Ecosystem, we'd expect to find fossils from a variety of animals, and numerous fossils have been found at least at these particular sites.

But there're several features peculiar to human language that have, for the most part, never been found in the communication system of any other species.

I mean I mention this cause like in my biology class last year, I kind of remember talking about a study on prairie dogs, where, I think the researchers claimed that the warning cries of prairie dogs constitute language, because they have this, different parts of speech.

Human language is productive and open-ended communication system, whereas no other communication system has this property.

At the time, people were wild for travel and for experiencing new places; but not everyone could afford it.

"Eidophusikon" means something like representation of nature, and that's exactly what he intended to do: create realistic moving scenes that change before the audiences' eyes.

Loutherbourg's influence on the theater though, he was incredibly influential: the way he brought together design and lighting and sound as a unified feature of the stage, can easily be seen in English theater's subsequent emphasis on lighting and motion.

He used a great number of lights, and he was able to change colors of light by using variously colored pieces of glass, to create effects like passing clouds that suddenly change in color.

And some people went outside, and they claimed Loutherbourg's thunder was actually better than the real thunder.

需要复习的单词:

primitive
hippopotamus
scene
thunder
privilege
opaque
 楼主| 发表于 2020-2-14 10:16:42 | 显示全部楼层
Day 40

TPO 8 阅读

古美洲城市 错2对12
恐龙灭绝  错3对11
古火星水流 错4对10

三篇文章都中规中矩,没有明显难的文章,内容,句子,单词难度感觉都偏中等。错的题目也都比较平均,没有明显错的多的题型。感觉可能到了平台期,努力吧。

需要复习的句子:
Long-distance trade in obsidian probably gave the elite residents of Teotihuacán access to a wide variety of exotic good, as well as a relatively prosperous life.

It seems likely that Teotihuacán’s natural resources, along with the city elite’s ability to recognize their potential, gave the city a competitive edge over its neighbors.

With Cuicuilco eliminated as a potential rival, any one of a number of relatively modest towns might have emerged as a leading economic and political power in Central Mexico.

The exact role of other factors is much more difficult to pinpoint―for instance, Teotihuacán’s religious significance as a shrine, the historical situation in and around the Valley of Mexico toward the end of the first millennium B.C., the ingenuity and foresightedness of Teotihuacán’s elite, and, finally, the impact of natural disasters, such as the volcanic eruptions of the late first millennium B.C.

Among the main factors are Teotihuacán’s geographic location on a natural trade route to the south and east of the Valley of Mexico, the obsidian resources in the Teotihuacán Valley itself, and the valley’s potential for extensive irrigation.

Paleontologists have argued for a long time that the demise of the dinosaurs was caused by climatic alterations associated with slow changes in the positions of continents and seas resulting from plate tectonics.

Over a period of about 100,000 years, while the seas pulled back, climates around the world became dramatically more extreme: warmer days, cooler nights; hotter summers, colder winters.

Critics also point out that the shallow seaways had retreated from and advanced on the continents numerous times during the Mesozoic, so why did the dinosaurs survive the climatic changes associated with the earlier fluctuations but not with this one?

By measuring how many of these meteorites fall to Earth over a given period of time, scientists can estimate how long it might have taken to deposit the observed amount of Ir in the boundary clay.

Scientists felt that they could get an idea of how long the extinctions took by determining how long it took to deposit this one centimeter of clay and they thought they could determine the time it took to deposit the clay by determining the amount of the element iridium (Ir) it contained.

They bear a strong resemblance to river systems on Earth, and geologists think that they are dried-up beds of long-gone rivers that once carried rainfall on Mars from the mountains down into the valleys

Run off channels on Mars speak of a time 4 billion years ago (the age of the Martian highlands), when the atmosphere was thicker, the surface warmer, and liquid water widespread.

But detractors maintain that the terraces could also have been created by geological activity, perhaps related to the geologic forces that depressed the Northern Hemisphere far below the level of the south, in which case they have nothing whatever to do with Martian water.

Aside from some small-scale gullies (channels) found since 2000, which are inconclusive, astronomers have no direct evidence for liquid water anywhere on the surface of Mars today, and the amount of water vapor in the Martian atmosphere is tiny.

Furthermore, Mars Global Surveyor data released in 2003 seem to indicate that the Martian surface contains too few carbonate rock layers—layers containing compounds of carbon and oxygen—that should have been formed in abundance in an ancient ocean.

需要复习的单词:

unproven
permafrost
controversial
eradicate
irrigation
shrine
 楼主| 发表于 2020-2-15 09:55:18 | 显示全部楼层
Day 41
2月15日
TPO 8 听力
对话
毕业文件 错1对4
请教问题 错1对4
讲座
动物栖息 错3对3
吸引顾客 错1对5
巴黎女艺术家 错2对4
元素周期表 错2对4

两份听力对话,其实内容不太典型,但基本上听懂了,做的还好。动物那篇比较难,听的很差。其他几篇马马虎虎吧。动物那篇还需重点复习下。


需要复习的长句:

She needs people to watch various new TV programs that haven't been broadcast yet, then indicate on a survey whether they liked it, why, if they'd watch another episode.

Over the next couple hundreds years, a lot of hypotheses were tossed around, the spots were mountains or holes in the solar atmosphere through which the dark surface of the Sun could be seen.

Anyway, Wolf went through all records from various observatories in Europe, and put together a history of sunspot observations going back about 100 years.

That's because magnetic fields reduce the pressure exerted on the gases inside of them, making the spots cooler than the rest of the Sun's surface.

That first of all starts drawing water away from the center of its body, so the middle part of the frog, its internal organs, its heart, lungs, livers, these start getting drier and drier while the water that's being pulled away is forming a puddle around the organs just underneath the skin.

But wherever they live, once the weather starts to turn cold and the temperature starts to drop below freezing, as soon as the frog even touches an ice crystal or a bit of frozen ground, well, it begins to freeze.

After months without heartbeat, spring time comes around again, the earth starts to warm up, and suddenly one day, ping, a pulse, followed by another one, then another until maybe ten, twelve hours later, the animal is fully recovered.

We've already looked at portrait sculpture which are busts created to commemorate people who had died, and we've looked at relief sculpture, or sculpting on walls.

Now, actually some Roman sculptures were original but others were exact copies of Greek statues and some Roman sculptures were combinations of some sort.

Now the dominant view in traditional art history is that Roman artists lacked creativity and skill, especially compared to the Greek artists who came before them.

The mother language, is the line on the top of this diagram, over time, it branches off into new daughter languages, which branch into daughter languages of their own, and languages that have the same source, the same mother, are called sisters.

需要复习的单词:

redid
taken aback
magnetic
lopsided
pulse
bust
contemporary
idealization
imperial
inhabitants
syntax
semantics
correspond
 楼主| 发表于 2020-2-16 10:00:52 | 显示全部楼层
Day 42
2月16日
TPO 7 阅读

古罗马与希腊 错2对12
地中海地质  错3对11
古班图人 错5对9

三篇文章好像一篇比一篇难,最后一篇时间紧,没做完,猜了几道题。感觉还是复杂的,不熟悉的事物读起来比较吃力。

需要复习的句子:

As a result of crustal adjustments and faulting, the Strait of Gibraltar, where the Mediterranean now connects to the Atlantic, opened, and water cascaded spectacularly back into the Mediterranean.

Turbulent waters tore into the hardened salt flats, broke them up, and ground them into the pebbles observed in the first sample taken by the Challenger.

Like the stone of Roman wall, which were held together both by the regularity of the design and by that peculiarly powerful Roman cement, so the various parts of the Roman realm were bonded into a massive, monolithic entity by physical, organizational, and psychological controls.

Changes in lake level not explained by river flows plus exchanges with the atmosphere must be due to the net difference between what seeps into the lake from the groundwater and what leaks into the groundwater.

Once all this information has been gathered, it becomes possible to judge whether a lake’s flow is mainly due to its surface inputs and outputs or to its underground inputs and outputs.

Few of the cultural traditions and rules that today allow us to deal with dense populations existed for these people accustomed to household autonomy and the ability to move around the landscape almost at will.

Archaeologists find that even the most isolated residences during the eleventh and twelfth centuries obtained some pottery, and probably food, from some distance away, while major ceremonial events were opportunities for sharing food and crafts.

需复习的单词:
seapage
discharge
exchange
seep
fluctuate
communal
dwelling
traumatic
autonomy
chore
aggregate
diverse
sensible
 楼主| 发表于 2020-2-17 10:11:11 | 显示全部楼层
Day 43
2月17日
TPO 7 听力

对话
志愿者 错1对4
图书馆 错0对5
讲座
蝙蝠超声波 错1对5
易洛魁人 错1对5
剧院历史 错3对3
冰川运动 错2对4

这次的两个对话都是很高频的内容,没啥大问题。四个课程里,剧院那篇有些专业内容不懂,背景不熟悉。冰川那篇又讲了一堆抽象的内容,听起来也比较费劲。还是有具体的故事情节的东西比较好懂。

需复习的长句

The answer that some give is that their behavior has evolved over time: it’s been shaped by constraints over vast stretches of time, all of which comes down to the fact that the best foraging strategy for beavers isn’t the one that yields the most food or wood: it’s the one that results in the most descendants, the most offspring.

In the  early 1100s, a church-building method was developed that reduced the stress on the walls, so more space could be used for window openings--allowing for large and, and quite elaborate window designs.

And, and it's different because with painted glass the idea of light coming through to create the magic effect wasn't the focus anymore... the paint work was.

Now, uh, in the window itself, the pieces of glass would be held together by strips of lead, so in the drawing, the uh artist would also indicate the location of the lead strips.

Well, lead is strong and, and flexible so it is ideal for joining pieces of glass cut in different shapes and sizes.

Uh but luckily there was a revival of the early techniques in the mid-1800s, and, and artists went back to creating colored glass and using the lead strips in their designs.

These of course took advantage of the new innovation of electric lighting e-electric lightbulbs don't give quite the same effect as sunlight streaming through stained glass, but it's close.

Up until now in our discussions and readings about the Baroque early Classical periods, we’ve been talking about the development of musical styles and genre within the relatively narrow social context of its patronage by the upper classes.

Now, as we know, keyboard instruments existed long before the piano—the organ, which dates back to the Middle Ages, as do other keyboard instruments, such as the harpsichord, which is still popular today with some musicians.

Previously, it was uh, quite rare for a woman to perform on anything but maybe a harp, or, or maybe she sang, but suddenly, in the nineteenth century, it became quite acceptable—even, to some extent, almost expected—for a middle-class European woman to be able to play the piano… partly because, among upper-middle-class women, it was a sign of refinement, but it was also an excellent way for some women to earn money—by giving piano lessons.

Well, the percussive effect of those little hammers means that the pianist, unlike the harpsichordist, can control the dynamics of the sound—how softly or loudly each note is struck—hence the name pianoforte—“soft and loud.”

Now, there are some pretty interesting caves in parts of the western United States, especially in national parks; there’s one park that has over a hundred caves, including some of the largest ones in the world.

Well, that might be a bit of an exaggeration, but it’s safe to say that it’s sulfuric acid, and not moving water, that formed Lechuguilla Cave, and those few other ones like it

It’s not really forming anymore… but there’s other ones like it, for example in Mexico, that are forming, and when cave researchers go to explore them, they see—and smell—the sulfuric acid and gases at work.

This is part of what led us to the realization that Lechuguilla is in that small group of waterless caves.

需复习的单词

ensemble
nominate
speculate
challenging
haul back
consciously
weigh
pros and cons
elaborate
scarce
ingredient
lead
copper
revival
principal
reassemble
transverse
harpsichord
pluck
drumstick
percussion
 楼主| 发表于 2020-2-18 10:40:04 | 显示全部楼层
Day 44
2月18日
TPO 6 阅读

地质学之父 错3对11
工业革命  错1对13
婴儿记忆 错6对8

地质学和婴儿两篇做的不理想。但其实做工业革命那篇,花的时间太多了,有好几题都是反复回看原文,然后才确定答案。导致婴儿那篇做起来非常敢。其实回看的话,婴儿那篇难度还好,还是自己阅读时间分配有问题。


需要复习的句子

The companies building the canals to transport coal needed surveyors to help them find the coal deposits worth mining as well as to determine the best courses for the canals.

But as more and more accumulations of strata were cataloged in more and more places, it became clear that the sequences of rocks sometimes differed from region to region and that no rock type was ever going to become a reliable time marker throughout the world.

Not only could Smith identify rock strata by the fossils they contained, he could also see a pattern emerging: certain fossils always appear in more ancient sediments, while others begin to be seen as the strata become more recent.

Only the last of these was suited at all to the continuous operating of machines, and although waterpower abounded in Lancashire and Scotland and ran grain mills as well as textile mills, it had one great disadvantage: streams flowed where nature intended them to, and water-driven factories had to be located on their banks whether or not the location was desirable for other reasons.

The ready availability of coal inspired William Murdoch during the 1790s to develop the first new form of nighttime illumination to be discovered in a millennium and a half.

Coal gas rivaled smoky oil lamps and flickering candles, and early in the new century, well-to-do Londoners grew accustomed to gaslit houses and even streets.

Another generation passed before inventors succeeded in combining these ingredients, by putting the engine on wheels and the wheels on the rails, so as to provide a machine to take the place of the horse.

Maturation of the frontal lobes of the brain continues throughout early childhood, and this part of the brain may be critical for remembering particular episodes in ways that can be retrieved later.

Through hearing stories with a clear beginning, middle, and ending children may learn to extract the gist of events in ways that they will be able to describe many years later.

General knowledge of categories of events such as a birthday party or a visit to the doctor's office helps older individuals encode their experiences, but again, infants and toddlers are unlikely to encode many experiences within such knowledge structures.

Conversely, improved encoding of what they hear may help them better understand and remember stories and thus make the stories more useful for remembering future events.

需要复习的单词:

rudimentary
locomotive
geological
meticulously
accumulation
rival
turnpike
verbalizable
amnesia
retrieval
verbally
conversely
 楼主| 发表于 2020-2-19 10:01:00 | 显示全部楼层
Day 45
2月19日
TPO 6 听力

对话
招聘会 错0对5
研究选题 错2对3

讲座
郁金香泡沫  错2对4
夜冠橡树 错3对3
创意写作 错2对4
气候变化 错4对2

这次的听力应该是做到现在最难,成绩最差的一次了。特点是,生词多,抽象内容多,同一段时间长度里,给出的信息量特别大。很多长句虽然结构不难,但里面给出了非常多的概念和信息,要命的是很多单词和背景知识都是不熟悉的。哎,赶紧再复习这几篇吧。

需要复习的句子:

Now, in your case, even though you wouldn't be looking for employment right now, it still wouldn't hurt for you to prepare much like you would if you were looking for a job.

Well, there is the job itself, and salary of course, and working conditions, I mean, would I have an office, or would I work in a big room with a zillion other employees, and, and maybe about opportunities for advancement.

We've certainly seen times when local economies expanded rapidly for a while and then went back to a normal pace of growth

You know, the idea that people tend to adapt their speaking to make it closer to the speech of whomever they're talking to, and I'm thinking, yeah, I do that when I talk with my roommates, and without even thinking about it or anything, you know.

It had the right kind of sandy soil for one thing, but also, it was a wealthy nation with a growing economy, willing to spend lots of money on new exotic things.

Soon tulips were beginning to show up in different colors as growers tried to breed them specifically for colors which would make them even more valuable.

But it was all pure speculation because as I said, there was no way to know if the bulb was really going to produce the variety, the color that was promised.

So, here we've got all the conditions for an irrational boom: a prospering economy, so more people had more disposable income - money to spend on luxuries, but they weren't experienced at investing their new wealth.

Panic spread like wild fire and the tulip market collapsed totally.

It's not a remnant of some huge population that is dwindled in last few hundred years for some reason.

It appears that the shell has to crack open or break down somewhat to allow the seed to soak up water.

As you create fictional characters, you'll almost always combine characteristics from several different people on your list to form the identity and personality of just one character.

Keeping this kind of character sketch can help you solidify your character's personality, so that it remains consistent throughout your story.

And then your round, your main character who loves success and loves to show off, comes and boasts about succeeding and jokes about the flat character's defeat in front of others, humiliates the other guy.

Anyway, it's this fossilized pollen along with the aquifers and the rock paintings, these three things are all evidence that the Sahara was once much greener than it is today, that there were hippos and probably elephants and giraffes and so on.

So then you have less moisture to help clouds form, nothing to evaporate for cloud formation.

And then the cycle continues, less rain, drier soil, less vegetation, fewer clouds, less rain etc. etc..

So it's only logical to hypothesize that a lot of these people migrated to the Nile valley when they realized that this was more than a temporary drought.

And that's okay, that's science and they hypothesize that this migration actually provided an important impetus in the development of ancient Egypt.

需要复习的单词:

career fair
senior
familiarize
dialect
accommodation
streak
petal
mortgage
collapse
tulip mania
cluster
resemblance
germinate
remnant
retreat
characteristic
formulate
solidify
pitfall
cliche
ragged
dweller
hippo
aquifer
monsoon
 楼主| 发表于 2020-2-20 10:09:17 | 显示全部楼层
Day 46
2月20日
TPO 5 阅读

植物矿物质 错3对11
岛民起源 错4对10
寒武纪大爆发  错2对12

植物和寒武纪这两篇看上去单词多,但其实大多为学科名词,本身不是太难。倒是太平洋岛民这篇,单词还好,但内容比较复杂。细节题很多选项其实都有陷阱,没看仔细,错的比较多。文章还是需要耐心细看。

需要复习的句子

Many are found in tropical and subtropical areas of the world, where accumulation of high concentrations of metals may afford some protection against plant-eating insects and microbial pathogens.

Only recently have investigators considered using these plants to clean up soil and waste sites that have been contaminated by toxic levels of heavy metals–an environmentally friendly approach known as phytoremediation.

Speculation on the origin of these Pacific islanders began as soon as outsiders encountered them, in the absence of solid linguistic, archaeological, and biological data, many fanciful and mutually exclusive theories were devised.

Just as important, the culture also possessed the basic foundation for an effective maritime adaptation, including outrigger canoes and a variety of fishing techniques that could be effective for overseas voyaging.

Contrary to the arguments of some that much of the pacific was settled by Polynesians accidentally marooned after being lost and adrift, it seems reasonable that this feat was accomplished by deliberate colonization expeditions that set out fully stocked with food and domesticated plants and animals.

The basic cultural requirements for the successful colonization of the Pacific islands include the appropriate boat-building, sailing, and navigation skills to get to the islands in the first place, domesticated plants and gardening skills suited to often marginal conditions, and a varied inventory of fishing implements and techniques.

At one time, the animals present in these fossil beds were assigned to various modern animal groups, but most paleontologists now agree that all Tommotian fossils represent unique body forms that arose in the early Cambrian period and disappeared before the end of the period, leaving no descendants in modern animal groups.

These fossil beds provide evidence of about 32 modern animal groups, plus about 20 other animal body forms that are so different from any modern animals that they cannot be assigned to any one of the modern groups.

需要复习的单词

notoriously
deficient
nitrogen
hydroponically
saline
pathogen
alpine
pennycress
cadmium
archaeological
implicitly
deprecate
maroon
decomposition
detritus
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