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prep1 essay6到底在说什么?

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发表于 2009-5-17 14:30:00 | 显示全部楼层

prep1 essay6到底在说什么?

看了很多遍 虽然第一次做题时没怎么错 但就是不太理解这篇文章的意思 希望有人能帮我大概翻译一下 谢啦~

Essay #6.  145      (21972-!-item-!-188;#058&00145-00)

 

 

Colonial historian David Allen's intensive study of five communities in seventeenth-century Massachusetts is a model of meticulous scholarship on the detailed microcosmic level, and is convincing up to a point.  Allen suggests that much more coherence and direct continuity existed between English and colonial agricultural practices and administrative organization than other historians have suggested.  However, he overstates his case with the declaration that he has proved "the remarkable extent to which diversity in New England local institutions was directly imitative of regional differences in the mother country."

 

 

Such an assertion ignores critical differences between seventeenth-century England and New England.  First, England was overcrowded and land-hungry; New England was sparsely populated and labor-hungry.  Second, England suffered the normal European rate of mortality; New England, especially in the first generation of English colonists, was virtually free from infectious diseases.  Third, England had an all-embracing state church; in New England membership in a church was restricted to the elect.  Fourth, a high proportion of English villagers lived under paternalistic resident squires; no such class existed in New England.  By narrowing his focus to village institutions and ignoring these critical differences, which studies by Greven, Demos, and Lockridge have shown to be so important, Allen has created a somewhat distorted picture of reality.

 

 

Allen's work is a rather extreme example of the "country community" school of seventeenth-century English history whose intemperate excesses in removing all national issues from the history of that period have been exposed by Professor Clive Holmes.  What conclusion can be drawn, for example, from Allen's discovery that Puritan clergy who had come to the colonies from East Anglia were one-third to one-half as likely to return to England by 1660 as were Puritan ministers from western and northern England?  We are not told in what way, if at all, this discovery illuminates historical understanding.  Studies of local history have enormously expanded our horizons, but it is a mistake for their authors to conclude that village institutions are all that mattered, simply because their functions are all that the records of village institutions reveal.

 

 

Question #17.  145-03  (22018-!-item-!-188;#058&000145-03)

 

 

According to the passage, which of the following was true of most villages in seventeenth-century England?

 

 

(A) The resident squire had significant authority.

(B) Church members were selected on the basis of their social status within the community.

(C) Low population density restricted agricultural and economic growth.

(D) There was little diversity in local institutions from one region to another.

(E) National events had little impact on local customs and administrative organization.

 

 

Question #18.  145-05  (22064-!-item-!-188;#058&000145-05)

 

 

The passage suggests that Professor Clive Holmes would most likely agree with which of the following statements?

 

 

(A) An understanding of seventeenth-century English local institutions requires a consideration of national issues.

(B) The "country community" school of seventeenth-century English history distorts historical evidence in order to establish continuity between old and new institutions.

(C) Most historians distort reality by focusing on national concerns to the exclusion of local concerns.

(D) National issues are best understood from the perspective of those at the local level.

(E) Local histories of seventeenth-century English villages have contributed little to the understanding of village life.

 

 

Question #19.  145-07  (22110-!-item-!-188;#058&000145-07)

 

 

It can be inferred from the passage that the author of the passage considers Allen's "discovery" (see highlighted text) to be

 

 

(A) already known to earlier historians

(B) based on a logical fallacy

(C) improbable but nevertheless convincing

(D) an unexplained, isolated fact

(E) a new, insightful observation

 

 

Question #20.  145-08  (22156-!-item-!-188;#058&000145-08)

 

 

The author of the passage is primarily concerned with

 

 

(A) substantiating a claim about a historical event

(B) reconciling two opposing ideas about a historical era

(C) disputing evidence a scholar uses to substantiate a claim about a historical event

(D) analyzing two approaches to scholarly research and evaluating their methodologies

(E) criticizing a particular study and the approach to historical scholarship it represents

 

 


[此贴子已经被作者于2009-5-17 14:33:10编辑过]
发表于 2009-5-21 15:45:00 | 显示全部楼层
我的一点拙见,请指教:
Colonial historian David Allen's intensive study of five communities in seventeenth-century Massachusetts is a model of meticulous scholarship on the detailed microcosmic level, and is convincing up to a point(主旨定位).  Allen suggests that much more coherence and direct continuity existed between English and colonial agricultural practices and administrative organization than other historians have suggested.  However, he overstates his case with the declaration that he has proved "the remarkable extent to which diversity in New England local institutions was directly imitative of regional differences in the mother country."
DA的研究:精深,比其他任何历史学家都更加强调English和colonial agricultural practices and administrative organization的一致性。
但是,DA的研究过分强调了区域的一致性(还是一致性)

Such an assertion ignores critical differences between seventeenth-century England and New England.  First, England was overcrowded and land-hungry; New England was sparsely populated and labor-hungry.  Second, England suffered the normal European rate of mortality; New England, especially in the first generation of English colonists, was virtually free from infectious diseases.  Third, England had an all-embracing state church; in New England membership in a church was restricted to the elect.  Fourth, a high proportion of English villagers lived under paternalistic resident squires(Q17答案改写); no such class existed in New England.  By narrowing his focus to village institutions and ignoring these critical differences, which studies by Greven, Demos, and Lockridge have shown to be so important, Allen has created a somewhat distorted picture of reality.
 
这样的断言忽略了1)2)3)and 4)个不同。G\D\L三个人指出:DA的研究局限于village institutions而忽略了这些如此重要的差异,从而歪曲了事实。
 

Allen's work is a rather extreme example of the "country community" school of seventeenth-century English history whose intemperate excesses in removing all national issues(Q18答案,取非) from the history of that period have been exposed by Professor Clive Holmes.  What conclusion can be drawn, for example, from Allen's discovery that Puritan clergy who had come to the colonies from East Anglia were one-third to one-half as likely to return to England by 1660 as were Puritan ministers from western and northern England?  We are not told in what way, if at all, this discovery illuminates historical understanding. (Q19答案,我们所了解的历史并非如此) Studies of local history have enormously expanded our horizons, but it is a mistake for their authors to conclude that village institutions are all that mattered, simply because their functions are all that the records of village institutions reveal.

DA的研究是“CC”学派一个相当极端的例子(暗示实际上,不是所有CC学派的都这么极端),Prof.CH指出:他们过分的排除了所有的national issues。但是呢,作者认为DA的发现(如puritan的例子)对理解历史问题有一定的启发作用。对于local history的研究大大开阔了我们的知识面,但是错就错在这些学者认为village institutions(大概意思同local history)就是所有要考虑的问题了,仅仅因为village institutions的作用来自于village institutions本身的记录。

主旨:批判了一个具体的研究以及这个学派的研究方法。
------------------
答案已修改,原先误将主旨写成Q19,因为印象里Q19是个主旨题。

[此贴子已经被作者于2009/8/9 11:32:32编辑过]
 楼主| 发表于 2009-5-23 15:04:00 | 显示全部楼层

十分感谢:)

分析的很到位,让我对这篇文章有了很好的理解。Thanks~ : ),之前是我太粗心大意了,很多细节都被忽略。
发表于 2009-5-29 14:30:00 | 显示全部楼层
我就莫考了这篇 错了一半哦。 郁闷, 历史类的很难读懂
发表于 2009-6-14 14:40:00 | 显示全部楼层

回复:(ny_915)我的一点拙见,请指教:Colonial his...

以下是引用ny_915在2009-5-21 15:45:00的发言:
我的一点拙见,请指教:
Colonial historian David Allen's intensive study of five communities in seventeenth-century Massachusetts is a model of meticulous scholarship on the detailed microcosmic level, and is convincing up to a point(Q19定位).  Allen suggests that much more coherence and direct continuity existed between English and colonial agricultural practices and administrative organization than other historians have suggested.  However, he overstates his case with the declaration that he has proved "the remarkable extent to which diversity in New England local institutions was directly imitative of regional differences in the mother country."
DA的研究:精深,比其他任何历史学家都更加强调English和colonial agricultural practices and administrative organization的一致性。
但是,DA的研究过分强调了区域的一致性(还是一致性)

Such an assertion ignores critical differences between seventeenth-century England and New England.  First, England was overcrowded and land-hungry; New England was sparsely populated and labor-hungry.  Second, England suffered the normal European rate of mortality; New England, especially in the first generation of English colonists, was virtually free from infectious diseases.  Third, England had an all-embracing state church; in New England membership in a church was restricted to the elect.  Fourth, a high proportion of English villagers lived under paternalistic resident squires(Q17答案改写); no such class existed in New England.  By narrowing his focus to village institutions and ignoring these critical differences, which studies by Greven, Demos, and Lockridge have shown to be so important, Allen has created a somewhat distorted picture of reality.
这样的断言忽略了1)2)3)and 4)个不同。G\D\L三个人指出:DA的研究局限于village institutions而忽略了这些如此重要的差异,从而歪曲了事实。

Allen's work is a rather extreme example of the "country community" school of seventeenth-century English history whose intemperate excesses in removing all national issues(Q18答案,取非) from the history of that period have been exposed by Professor Clive Holmes.  What conclusion can be drawn, for example, from Allen's discovery that Puritan clergy who had come to the colonies from East Anglia were one-third to one-half as likely to return to England by 1660 as were Puritan ministers from western and northern England?  We are not told in what way, if at all, this discovery illuminates historical understanding.  Studies of local history have enormously expanded our horizons, but it is a mistake for their authors to conclude that village institutions are all that mattered, simply because their functions are all that the records of village institutions reveal.

DA的研究是“CC”学派一个相当极端的例子(暗示实际上,不是所有CC学派的都这么极端),Prof.CH指出:他们过分的排除了所有的national issues。但是呢,作者认为DA的发现(如puritan的例子)对理解历史问题有一定的启发作用。对于local history的研究大大开阔了我们的知识面,但是错就错在这些学者认为village institutions(大概意思同local history)就是所有要考虑的问题了,仅仅因为village institutions的作用来自于village institutions本身的记录。

主旨:批判了一个具体的研究以及这个学派的研究方法。

分析的很精彩!!    但是你写出的Q19的出题点我觉得不大对!   应该在文章末端才提出对A的discovery的评价。

大家觉得呢?

发表于 2009-7-26 17:58:00 | 显示全部楼层

整体概念还好,可细节都是很模糊

发表于 2009-7-26 18:02:00 | 显示全部楼层

感谢NY的分析

 同意ls,Q19的定位应该在倒数第三行

 if at all, this discovery illuminates historical understanding


[此贴子已经被作者于2009/7/26 18:02:14编辑过]
发表于 2009-9-25 16:26:00 | 显示全部楼层
What conclusion can be drawn, for example, from Allen's discovery that Puritan clergy who had come to the colonies from East Anglia were one-third to one-half as likely to return to England by 1660 as were Puritan ministers from western and northern England? --谁能把这句翻译一下啊,不知道什么意思。
发表于 2010-4-23 01:35:10 | 显示全部楼层
我觉得#19就是定位于下面这句,
We are not told in what way, if at all, this discovery illuminates historical understanding

注意if at all是插入语,这句的意思是
:我们没有被告知通过什么途径这个discovery阐述对历史的理解

所以 :the discovery is unexplained, isolated fact.也就是第二句回答的问题
D对。
发表于 2010-5-12 20:56:40 | 显示全部楼层
一楼的MM分析的很彻底很棒!
但是19题我还不是太懂。。。。我总觉得按最后一句话理解应该是一些大-小+的评价~~~貌似和D没有什么关系~
如果像ls说的一样,那个fact是怎么得出来的?
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