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LEO语法知识点笔记整理

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发表于 2020-3-12 15:25:48 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
楼主毕业之后,好久没有接触过英语了。计划21年去美国读MBA。节后疫情在家办公期间拿起了英语书,开始准备托福和GMAT。发现语法知识的缺失对我的长难句理解造成非常大的障碍。特此开始自己总结和学习语法知识点。希望通过这段时间的学习和总结,能让自己有所提升。

当然我听很多老师说,语法不重要,托福和GMAT要看语义。但奈何本人的英语水平早已还给老师了,下定决心每天复习的时候, 带着看一点语法。通过语法更好的帮助理解长难句,段落和文章大意。A long journey can be covered only by taking one step at a time.

分享在CD上攒rp, 也和疫情在家共同努力的战友们共勉!

目录:

第01篇:平行结构          首页沙发
第02篇:名词性从句       首页板凳
第03篇:状语从句          首页地板
第04篇:As用法整理       首页5
第06篇:强调句             首页7

托福相关
第01篇:托福综合模版     首页6




 楼主| 发表于 2020-3-12 15:39:40 | 显示全部楼层
第01篇:平行结构
平行结构(Parallel Construction):
是通过连接词连接的两个及两个以上的相同的结构,即词、短语或句子的平行结构。咱们最熟悉的连接词是and,除了它之外,还有but /yet /or /not only...but also /rather than /prefer to ... 可以连接平行结构。

以下是平行结构的几个句式:
E.g. Studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability. (由and连接,介词短语的平行)
      读书以怡情,以博彩,以长才。
E.g. A father who spends time with his son and who thoughtfully answers his son's question will be respected and loved.(由and连接,定语从句的平行)
        一位父亲花时间和他的儿子在一起,细心地回答他儿子的问题,他就会受到尊敬和爱戴。

E.g. This “atmospheric engine,” invented by Thomas Savery and vastly improved by his partner, Thomas Newcomen, embodied revolutionary principles, but it was so slow and wasteful of fuel that it could not be employed outside the coal mines for which it had been designed.(由but连接,两个主句的平行,虽然but有转折之意,但仍旧平行)
         这种大气发动机由托马斯·萨弗里(Thomas Savery)发明,并由他的合伙人托马斯·纽科门(Thomas Newcomen)对其进行了大量改进,体现了革命性的原理,但它速度太慢,浪费燃料,因此无法在煤矿以外的地方使用。

E.g. The salesman expected that he would present his produce at the meeting, that there would be time for him to show his slide presentation, and that questions would be asked by prospective buyers.(由and连接,三个名词性从句的平行,都作ecpected的宾语成分)
        销售人员希望他能在会议上展示他的产品,有时间展示他的幻灯片,也有时间回答潜在买家的问题。

E.g. Normally, the constantly changing levels of an animal's activity——sleeping, feeding, moving, reproducing, metabolizing, and producing enzymes and hormones, for example——are well coordinated with environmental rhythms, but the key question is whether the animal's schedule is driven by external cues, such as sunrise or sunset, or is instead dependent somehow on internal timers that themselves generate the observed biological rhythms. (由and连接,六个现在分词的平行;由or连接,两个被动语态的平行)
       一般情况下,动物活动水平的不断变化——睡眠,喂食,移动繁殖,新陈代谢,产生酶和激素,但是关键的问题是动物的时间表是否是由外部线索驱动的,比如日出或日落,或者是由内部计时器以某种方式决定的,而内部计时器本身产生了观察到的生物节律。

如何划分平行结构:
1.当一个句子里出现了连接词:and /but /yet /or /not only...but also /rather than /prefer to ...
2.且这些连接词前后的结构保持一致,就可以判断为句式的平行结构

通过以上的例句我们能够看出来英语中为了表达同类的思想观点和行为动作,继而把两个或两个以上意义相关、层次相同、句法功能也相同的词、短语或句子等成串排列在一起。同学们可以把它看作是一种语言的表达形式,平行结构可以使文章思路清晰、突出重点,并且创造出一种韵律感,所以建议同学们在写作方面多尝试用平行结构的句式来写,让文章更加言简意赅。为了让同学们更深切的感受平行结构句式和普通句式的区别,老师给大家举个例子,一起来看一看。

普通句式: Jimmy Davis was an amateur country music singer.
                Jimmy Davis was a governor of Louisiana.
                Jimmy Davis wrote songs too.
平行结构: Jimmy Davis was an amateur country music singer, a governor of Louisiana, and wrote songs too.

从上面这两个句式能够看出来同样表达的是一个意思,但是普通句式就会写的非常繁琐和啰嗦,而当使用了平行结构,意思直接并简单明了,使结构紧凑,语言简练。

平行结构在英语当中,还可以被应用到修辞手法当中,就是人们常说的排比(Parallelism),它能给人语意丰富、力度集中且色彩鲜明的感受,当我们读英文小说原著或者是演讲类文章的时候,很容易遇到这样的句式,如:
Would you resembled the metal you work with,
Would the iron entered into your souls,
Would you become like steel on your own behalf.

再比如:
I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed:"We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal."
I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.
I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.

平行是英语语法的基础。楼主认为恰当地使用平行结构,以精简的笔墨表达出丰富而深刻的内涵,一定能大大提升托福写作水平。


 楼主| 发表于 2020-3-12 16:00:09 | 显示全部楼层
第02篇:名词性从句
名词性从句:
是英语语法中三大从句之一,一定要由专门的引导词来引导此从句。这里需要注意的是,无论它写的有多长,从本质上来讲,名词性从句只是充当一个名词的作用,即:做句中的主语/宾语/表语/同位语的成分。很多同学都会问老师,“主语从句的引导词有哪些,宾语从句长什么样“等等这样的问题,其实大家已经把名词性从句拆分地四不像了,才会问这样的问题,因为无论是主语从句也好,还是宾语从句/表语从句/同位语从句也好,本质上它们都属于名词性从句,只是因为在句中充当的成分不一样,才有了不一样的名称,做到一点即可:不要把名词性从句拆成若干个部分,那样只会导致大家混乱,一定要从整体入手。

名词性从句的引导词都有哪些:
连接代词:what/who/whom/whose/which(后面接不完整句结构)
我们先一起来看看由这些连接代词引导的名词性从句在句中作怎样的成分:
E.g. What we can do is to wait. (what we can do 在句中作主语成分)        
E.g. Research on animal intelligence also makes me wonder what experiments animals would perform on humans if they had the chance. (what experiments animals would perform on humans在句中作宾语成分)
E.g. Who will take his place will be decided by the boss. (Who will take his place在句中作主语成分)
E.g. I want to know which restaurant is the best. (which restaurant is the best在句中作宾语成分)

连接副词:that/how/why/whether(后面接完整句结构)
我们一起再来看看由这些连接副词引导的名词性从句在句中作怎样的成分:
E.g. Online culture thinks highly of the notion that the information flowing onto the screen comes there by specific request. (that the information flowing onto the screen comes there by specific request在句中作同位语,解释说明notion)
翻译:网络文化推崇这样一种观念,即信息流到屏幕上是应特定的要求而出现的。

E.g. Researchers still don't understand why the body should suppress immunity during time of stress if anything the opposite would seem to make sense. (why the body should suppress immunity during time of stress if anything the opposite would seem to make sense在句中作宾语成分)
翻译:研究人员仍然不明白为什么身体在有压力时会抑制免疫力,如果相反的情况看起来有意义的话。

E.g. There is no agreement whether methodology refers to the concepts peculiar to historical work in general or to the research techniques appropriate to the various branches of historical inquiry. (whether methodology refers to the concepts peculiar to historical work in general or to the research techniques appropriate to the various branches of historical inquiry在句中作同位语,解释说明agreement)
翻译:方法论究竟是指一般历史工作所特有的概念,还是指适合于历史研究各个分支的研究方法,目前还没有一致的意见。

E.g. There are a lot of different approaches but this is, in my opinion, too often we underestimate how much can be accomplished just by appealing to people’s sense of moral duty, to their civic duty. (how much can be accomplished just by appealing to people’s sense of moral duty, to their civic duty在句中作宾语成分)
翻译:有很多不同的方法,但在我看来,我们常常低估了,仅仅通过唤起人们的道德责任感,公民责任感,就能取得多大的成就。

[注] 其中引导词that在从句中无具体含义,只是起到强调的作用。

名词性从句相对于定语从句和状语从句来说,是最不好区分的,因为名词性从句要充当名词的成分,杂糅在主干当中,稍不留神就会被它所误导,从而找不到句中真正的主干究竟在哪,老师曾遇到一个真实案例:一位考托的同学把从句中的谓语动词当成了主句中的谓语,没有看懂名词性从句的架构,这个句式是这样的:
An irony is that although the journalists feel they are pandering public tastes, the public's declining confidence in the press suggests that it is not pleased with what it is getting from the journalists.
在这个句子中,is后面是that引导的名词性从句,作表语成分,只是在名词性从句中多加了一个although引导的状语从句,并且在名词性从句中,又多加了一个that引导的名词性从句,作suggest的宾语成分,如果把此句式浓缩成结构,是这样的:

SVO that [状语从句],SV [that SVO].

类似于这样的长难句还有很多,希望同学们能够掌握好名词性从句的核心内容,并做好结构划分,有利于文章的理解,就不用把阅读整体文章的时间浪费在句子分析上了。

 楼主| 发表于 2020-3-13 10:31:35 | 显示全部楼层
第03篇:状语从句
状语从句
状语从句(Adverbial Clause)是英语语法中的三大从句之一,它的形式是只有一种(引导词+完整句),不会像名词性从句和定语从句那样形式多变,被用来修饰主句或者修饰另两个从句,它的种类繁多,包括时间状语从句/地点状语从句/原因状语从句/条件状语从句/目的状语从句/让步状语从句/比较状语从句/方式状语从句/结果状语从句,记住状语从句的引导词。

时间状语从句引导词:when/ as/ while/ before/ after/ since/ not...until ...
地点状语从句引导词:where/ wherever/ anywhere/ everywhere ...
原因状语从句引导词:because/ since / as ...
目的状语从句引导词:so that / in order that ...
结果状语从句引导词:so...that... / such...that...
条件状语从句引导词:if/ unless/ as long as/ providing/ provided that ...
让步状语从句引导词:though/ although/ even if/ even though/ as/ while ...
比较状语从句引导词:as/ just as ...
方式状语从句引导词:as if ...

E.g. Although these molecules allow radiation at visible wavelengths, where most of the energy of sunlight is concentrated, to pass through, they absorb some of the longer-wavelength, infrared emissions radiated from the Earth’s surface, radiation that would otherwise be transmitted back into space.
翻译 == 虽然这些分子允许可见波长的辐射(阳光的大部分能量集中于此)通过,但它们也会吸收一些波长较长的辐射,即从地球表面辐射出的红外辐射,否则这些辐射就会被传回太空。

E.g. Indeed, if you take baby tree swallows out of a nest for an hour (feeding half the set and starving the other half), when the birds are replaced in the nest, the starved youngsters beg more loudly than the fed birds, and the parent birds feed the active beggars more than those who beg less vigorously.
翻译 == 确实,如果你把树燕宝宝从巢里带出来一个小时(喂饱一半,饿死另一半),当鸟被放回巢里时,饿死的幼鸟比喂饱的鸟叫得更大声,而亲鸟比那些不那么积极地叫的鸟喂得更多。

E.g. Though it may be difficult to imagine from a later perspective, a strain of critical opinion in the 1920s predicted [that sound film would be a technical novelty that would soon fade from sight, just as had many previous attempts, dating well back before the First World War, to link images with recorded sound.]

翻译 == 虽然从后来的角度来看可能很难想象,20世纪20年代,一种批评观点预测,有声电影将是一种技术上的新事物,很快就会从人们的视线中消失,就像早在第一次世界大战之前,人们就曾多次尝试将图像与录制的声音联系起来。

状语从句的省略
1)主干的主语和从句的主语是同一个
2)从句的谓语动词是be-v
状语从句的主语和be-v就可以省略掉

E.g. Because he was interested in the relationship of language and thought, Whorf developed the idea that the structure of language determines the structure of habitual thought in a society.
从句的主语he正是主句的主语Whorf,而且从句的谓语动词是be-v,因此可以省略掉he was
== Because interested in the relationship of language and thought, Whorf developed the idea that the structure of language determines the structure of habitual thought in a society.

E.g. Though typically about two inches taller now than 140 years ago, today'speople---especially were born to families who have lived in the US for many generations---apparently reached their limit in the eraly 1960s.
== 分析过程:引导词though需要接完整句引导状语从句,但是此句的状语从句中没有主语和谓语,因此判断,该状语从句是省略的形式,省略了主句的主语today's people,并再加上be-v,通过主句的时态和主语的名词复数,判断be-v应该是were,所以还原该句:
== Though today's people were typically about two inches taller now than 140 years ago, today'speople---especially were born to families who have lived in the US for many generations---apparently reached their limit in the eraly 1960s.


 楼主| 发表于 2020-3-16 19:40:52 | 显示全部楼层
第04篇:As的用法整理
单词as的概述
as,有连词(Conj.)的词性、介词(Prep.)的词性,有,也有副词(Adv.)的词性,所以as的后面接不同形式的结构,取决于它被当作什么词性去使用,而且在长难句中,也经常见到as引导的从句,或者由as与名词衔接在一起的介词短语,要想弄懂句子,就要弄懂结构,而要想弄懂结构,就必须从小知识点开始积累。

as的用法归纳
1.as作为连词(Conj.)
1)as + SVO 当......时候(相当于when)   ;随着
e.g. As the snow ages on the ground for weeks or months, the crystals shrink and become more compact, and the whole mass becomes squeezed together into a more dense form, granular snow.
随着积雪几个星期或者几个月地长久地待在地面上,这些晶体会收缩并且变得更加紧密,而且一整团雪挤压在一起变成更加密实的形态,即粒状雪。
as + SVO 因为
e.g.  Enjoy the first hour of the day. This is important as it sets the mood for the rest of the day.
享受一天中的第一个小时。这很重要,因为这第一个小时决定当天其余时间的情绪。
2)as + SVO 尽管
e.g. As the women's movement and political controversies about such issues and the Equal Rights Amendment and sexual harassment suggest that changing sex roles is a recent issue, this is far from the case.
虽然女权运动及其类似政治争议、平等权利修正案和性骚扰表明转变性别角色是新近出现的问题,但实际上远非如此。
3)as ... as和......一样
e.g. Your pen writes as smoothly as mine.
你的钢笔书写起来和我的一样流畅。

2.as作为介词(Prep.)
as+N./N从/V-ing(动名词)  作为......
e.g.The new accessibility of land around the periphery of almost every major city sparked an explosion of real estate development and fueled what we now know as urban sprawl.
几乎每一个主要城市的周边都出现了新的土地,这引发了房地产开发的爆炸性增长,并加剧了我们现在所说的城市扩张。
e.g.As relative newcomers to the Southwest, a place where their climate, neighbors,and rulers could be equally inhospitable, the Navajo created these art forms to affect the world around them, not just through the recounting of the actions symbolized, but through the beauty and harmony of the artworks themselves.
作为西南部(在那里气候恶劣、邻居冷漠以及统治者暴政)相对较新的人,纳瓦霍人不仅是通过详述这些象征性的行为,而且还通过艺术品本身的美和和谐,创造了这些艺术形式来影响他们周围的世界。

3.as作为副词(Adv.)
as + SVO 正如,就像
e.g. As Patrick Kirch, an American anthropologist, points out, rather than being brought by rafting South Americans, sweet potatoes might just have easily been brought back by returning Polynesian navigators who could have reached the west coast of South America.正如美国人类学家 Patrick Kirch 所指出的,甘薯并不是南美人用筏运来的,而是通过已经去过南美西海岸的玻利尼西亚返航者很方便就带来了。

as用法的特征
1.词性多 = 用法多
2.根据as后面的结构推出它被当作什么词性来使用,从而找到对应的汉语意思


 楼主| 发表于 2020-3-16 19:49:03 | 显示全部楼层
第05篇:分享一个见到过的综合托福作文模版
开头段
1.In the lecture, the professor made several points about XXX. The professor argues that XXX. However, the reading passage contends that XXX. The professor's lecture casts doubt on the reading by using a number of point that are contrary to XXX.
分享:先提出听力的观点,然后通过转折词的出现,表达阅读的观点与听力的观点是相反的,从而抛出话题。

2. The first point that the professor uses to cast doubt on the reading is that XXX. According to the professor, XXX differs from the reading in that the reading states XXX. The point made by the professor casts doubt on the reading becasue XXX.
分享:这个开头段和上面那个表达的结构是一样的,只是换了句子的表达方式,说听力里的教授质疑阅读里的观点,听力里的教授的观点是什么,紧接着说阅读里的观点又是什么,通过比较的方式,引出话题。

3. When it comes to ... , some think ... . There is a public debate today that ... . A is a common way of ... , but is it a wise one? Recently the problem has been brought into focus
分享:这个开头段的句式表达,采取的结构是先说出来具体的话题,然后逐一介绍阅读和听力的观点,总➡️分的结构;

结尾段:
1.Finally, the professor stated that XXX , on the contrary of reading , ... . In other words, XXX. This directly contradicts what the reading passage indicates, because..... .
分享:这结构简介明了,两句话囊括所有的信息和观点,并能够起到总结的作用,算得上是一个黄金结尾。

2.So, the contents in the reading passage are totally jeopardized by the speaker and the speaker has totally different ideas on the topics made in the reading.
分享:这个结尾比上一个更加直接明白,一句话表达阅读和听力中的两个观点,并且句式表达很地道,不拖泥带水,很有强调力。

3.From what has been discussed above, we may safely draw that the view in the reading refutes professor who mentions XXX. In summary, it is wiser that XXX.
分享:这个结尾先提出阅读反驳听力,然后稍稍带出作者的态度,最后进行总结,这样的表达也是可取的。




 楼主| 发表于 2020-3-17 15:06:13 | 显示全部楼层
第06篇:强调句
强调句的概念
强调是交际中经常出现的一种需要,我们在交流或写文章的时候,为了凸显出句子的某一部分,也就是我们想要强调的那个东西,就会使用某种方法来表示强调和突出,因此就出现了强调句(Emphatic Sentence)。
1.1 强调句的特点
从本质上来说,强调句是一种修辞手法,是人们为了表达自己的意愿或情感而使用的一种形式。
1.2强调句的分类
强调句分为两种  
a.对主语/宾语/介词短语的强调
b.对动词的强调

2.突出主语/宾语/介词短语的强调句
1)句型结构
It is/was + 被强调部分 + that/who + 其他部分
e.g. Anne Hathaway won best actress at the Cannes Film Festival.
强调主语:It was Anne Hathaway that won best actress at the Cannes Film Festival.
强调宾语:  It was best actress that Anne Hathaway won at the Cannes Film Festival.
强调介词短语:It was at the Cannes Film Festival that Anne Hathaway won best actress.
2)长难句例句
e.g. Often it is the delivery that causes the audience to smile, so speak slowly and remember that a raised eyebrow or an unbelieving look may help to show that you are making a lighthearted remark.
解析:划线加粗部分就是被强调的部分,表示这是一种经常使听众发笑的讲述方法,重点是强调方法二字。
翻译:这是一种经常使听众发笑的讲述方法,所以,讲得慢一些,记住扬一扬眉,或一副不相信的表情可以有助于表现出你正在做一场轻松愉快的评论。
e.g. It is the playgoers, the RSC(Royal Shakespeare Company) contends, who bring in much of the towns revenue because they spend the night(some of them four or five nights) pouring cash into the hotels and restaurants.
解析:划线加粗部分就是被强调的部分,表示正是这些票友给镇上带来了丰厚的收入,重点是强调这些票友。
翻译:皇家莎士比亚公司坚持说,正是这些票友给镇上带来了丰厚的收入,因为他们要在此过夜(有些人会逗留四五天),自然也就将钱大把地花在酒店和餐馆里。

3.突出动词的强调句
1)句型结构
在谓语动词的前面加do/did/does
e.g.         I do like swimming. 强调我喜欢游泳这件事,也就是说在强调喜欢这个动作
        He did go there last night.强调他昨晚确实到过那个地方,强调的是他发出的“去”这个动作

2)长难句例句
e.g. The president of the National Academy, Bruce Alberts, added this key point in the preface to the panels report “Science never has all the answers. But science does provide us with the best available guide to the future, and it is critical that our nation and the world base important policies on the best judgments that science can provide concerning the future consequences of present actions. ”
解析:划线加粗部分就是被强调的部分,表示科学确实能给我们提供最好的指导,重点是强调“提供”这个动作。
翻译:国家科学院院长布鲁斯·艾伯茨在会议报告的前言中补充和强调了这一点,即科学解答不了所有的问题,但科学的确能给我们提供将来可行的最好的指导,关键是我们国家和其他各国在做重要决策时应该以科学能够提供给我们的、对于人类现在的行为对未来影响的最好的判断作为依据。

e.g. For example, some early societies did cease to consider certain rites essential to their well-being and abandoned them, nevertheless, they retained as parts of their oral tradition the myths that had grown up around the rites and admired them for their artistic qualities rather than for their religious usefulness.
解析:划线加粗部分就是被强调的部分,表示社会确实停止去考虑使用某些仪式,重点是强调“考虑”这个动作。
翻译:例如,一些早期社会确实不再认为某些仪式对他们的幸福至关重要,并放弃了这些仪式。尽管如此,他们仍然保留着围绕着仪式而产生的神话,并将其作为口头传统的一部分,并因其艺术性而不是其宗教上的有用性而赞赏它们。


发表于 2020-3-29 17:45:28 | 显示全部楼层
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