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[备考心经] 更新 + 【内附各部分总结资料】如何系统化复习GMAT 670-700-760

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发表于 2016-12-22 17:29:45 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
回国实习认识了很多小伙伴,发现还是有很多人不知道怎么考GMAT,重新经营了这个帖子,下方图片有邮件联系方式 ,如果有想购买语法笔记的朋友们可以邮件联系我~其他资料都是免费公开共享的,还是挺有帮助的,你们斟酌使用吧~



曾与同考GMAT的战友说过,如果分手成功,我一定要在CD上发一条长长的帖子,抒发苦不堪言的血泪史。在考过之后忙于申请,申请之后忙于放纵,导致这句话今天才得以实现。。。


出国留学党曾不止一次被认为比考研找工作的轻松,你们不是就考几个语言考试吗,哪像我们这么累。考雅思的时候,我也这么觉得,语言考试嘛,我英语还算不错啊,没怎么复习就考到了7,是比你们轻松那么一丢丢啦~ 但是考上G之后我真的觉得很累,不仅仅是身体上的累,更是心灵上的打击。惭愧的说,我一共考了三次,每次考前很紧张,因为早上考必须要吃东西,但是我已经紧张到吃了就想吐的程度,想到那时的自己不禁撇了撇嘴,感觉自己真没出息,高考都没紧张成这样。


第一次准备两个月,对,没看错,整整两个月,我做出了一副整天自己为GMAT奋不顾身的样子,泡图书馆,晚上闭馆才回到寝室。这样的努力让我自我陶醉,怎么着我也得一次过了吧,700+不是问题吧,考出来傻眼了,我连买的吃的都没拿,像丢了魂儿一样的走出了考场。不仅仅是失落难过,是一种浓浓的挫败感,相信很多努力过但是G成绩不好的同学都和我有一样的愤懑:我TM是不是傻啊,学了这么久考出了这么个鬼样子,还出国,出什么国!完了!我这未来该怎么办啊!?这种诸如此类的恐慌!但是还好有CD这个小天使般的论坛,让我们这些无数的小心灵找到了依靠~ 看了心经发现,原来不仅仅是我一个人,原来GMAT要这样学!


GMAT要怎么样学?


回想第一次备战,妈蛋!走的全是弯路,一天天就只知道泡在图书馆里刷题,错了就改,堪堪停留在只知道自己怎么错的阶段,却没有对错的题目深入挖掘,将其整理成知识点形成自己的知识库中。看到这里的小伙伴也可以回想一下自己失败的经历:咱摸着那小心肝问一下,那些起早贪黑的努力真的起了作用吗?还是只是表面功夫并没有起到真正的效果?


我对于GMAT最大的心经在于“系统化”!


无论是逻辑还是语法,都是一套系统在里面,要学会把这些杂的知识点融会贯通串成自己的知识库,方才能发挥自如。至于阅读这个小妖精,原谅我也没什么心得,小安阅读法我也试了,各种阅读方法也总结了,收效平平,最后还是寂静帮了大忙 (* - *) PS:个人认为寂静的整理还是离不开系统化,你只有整理成自己绝对熟悉的脉络,才不会被反噬,至于如何整理,大家可以看我的另一篇帖子,三战考了之后我就把它发了出来~

下面来单项具体说说逻辑和语法吧

逻辑:我采用的helr的逻辑方法,可以看到后面我整理寂静的分类和思路也是按照这个来的~ 个人认为很有用,因为读了题干之后,你就有了逻辑思路,而这个思路方向百分之八十你都会在选项里面找到,不但让你答得确定,更是很节省时间!很多人说最开始很难接受这种思维方式,我最开始也有点,觉得好浪费时间啊,自己靠破脑瓜干想说不定还快一点~ 但是看了几个大神的帖子都说有用,要通过练习形成自己的思维~ 狠狠心,试一试!我分为了三步攻克了helr的逻辑方法

第一步:查找关于helr的逻辑资料。基本上关于它的我都下载到一个文件夹里面,然后通过一天的时间消化理解,形成大概的印象和理解(前人栽树,后人乘凉!我会把我找到的资料和自己整理的资料放上去,大家可以斟酌使用~)

第二步:通过做题消化理解。做什么题这很重要!之前我也试了一下helr笔记,但是有的时候和里面理解的思路不一样,又不能被其所说服(原谅我是这一个很gen的人。。。)所以我放弃helr笔记,转向了OG!GMAC是老大,人家里面说的话咱不仅信服,还得在脑子里多过几遍慎重思考。并且仔细研究OG逻辑的解释研究,你会发现其实他的思路解释和helr的惊人的相似!什么果因推理削弱,相关因果推理加强这些思路有异曲同工之妙!所以第二步就是结合OG题目进行helr的进一步理解,做法就是每道题都要列出逻辑链,并且根据helr的模式分类,找出思路方向~

如果时间来得及的小伙伴可以自己整理出一份文档,思路模式加例题。如果时间来不及,就单单整理思路模式即可,例如在后面标出,比如OG多少页多少题这种~

第三步:采用GWD或者prep等逻辑题进一步深入强化
这个强化我推荐经过两个阶段
第一阶段:仍像做OG一样,每一道题列出逻辑链以及分类,总结常错知识点并入逻辑知识库
第二阶段:掐时间做,看自己的pace和准确率


  



本人是经过这三个阶段~逻辑有了一个大的飞升啦,最后考试逻辑的部分是超过了99%






再来说语法:
语法有个宝 Ron带你跑

Ron简直就男神,曾经不止一个战友把头像换成他保佑自己顺利分手~

第一步:把Ron的视频(曼哈顿论坛Thursday with Ron)看完,总结出自己的知识点
一定要总结,不然你看的时候觉得说的挺对,一到自己做就傻眼了,这是为什么!就是咱其实没能好好的吸收,我的建议就是总结出每个的知识点并将其分类,建立成自己的知识库

第二步:做题,做OG,看OG解释(反正我觉得OG的解释还是蛮讨厌的!不是wordy就是redundant要不然就是unidiomatic)但是也要先做OG,毕竟OG是本尊王道,注意标注错题和自己有疑问的地方

第三步:做prep,为什么要做prep,原因很简单:Ron,Ron会在曼哈顿论坛解释prep的问题,OG的因为版权问题已经不解释了,能找到的也是以前的很老的题了,所以prep是最好的选择!如果你有时间,每一道错题都要在曼哈顿论坛上搜,看Ron的解释,总结出知识点(最好像我一样,把知识点和错的题都整理到知识库中)PS:我的眼睛是Ron过滤器,只看Ron的回答,这样也比较省时间

第四步:最后,一个语法的知识库就出来了,然后结合自己的知识库再刷一遍OG,分析其考点,再做GWD等题目,逐渐丰满完善属于自己的知识库~


我花了半年的时间整理出了一套系统的语法知识库,我知道CD上无偿分享的宗旨,我也在前面分享了很多,但是这份笔记一共288页,十万多个字,是我接近半年的心血,暑假也没有回家全职复习GMAT,大部分时间用来整理笔记,浏览曼哈顿论坛,整理知识点完善知识库,所以如果有伙伴们有时间来不及或者觉得语法遇到瓶颈的的,可以到我开的淘宝店铺上去购买,团购有优惠





最后祝大家都会申到自己满意的学校~


楼主有长达288页的语法系统化笔记,可通过邮箱联系我购买事宜,售价199~

第二楼是摘取了我笔记的总结的一个知识点,有兴趣的同学可以看一下~


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 楼主| 发表于 2016-12-22 17:32:48 | 显示全部楼层
一、        As
1.        As…as
(1)as...as后面不可以接范围
as adj. as后面不能接范围,只能接value
例如:some of our players weigh as much as 300-325 pounds --> bad phrasing
      some of our players weigh as much as 325 pounds --> good phrasing

举例:
The single-family house constructed by the Yana, a Native American people who lived in what is now northern California, was conical in shape, its framework of poles overlaid with slabs of bark, either cedar or pine, and banked with dirt to a height of three to four feet.
A. banked with dirt to a height of
B. banked with dirt as high as that of
C. banked them with dirt to a height of
D. was banked with dirt as high as
E. was banked with dirt as high as that of       

正确答案A
(2)as…as比较结构助动词提前原则
只有形容词,没有modifier(介词短语/从句/etc.),助动词提前不提前均可(除后面例子外)
当有noun modifier的时候,助动词必须提前。

举例:
According to a study published in The New England Journal of Medicine, aspirin prevents blood clots just as well as a commonly used and more expensive blood-thinning drug does.
A. prevents blood clots just as well as a commonly used and more expensive blood-thinning drug does
B. prevents blood clots just as well as does a commonly used and a more expensive blood-thinning drug
C. prevents blood clots just as well as will a commonly used and more expensive blood-thinning drug
D. works just as well as a commonly used and more expensive blood-thinning drug at the prevention of blood clots
E. works just as well as does a commonly used blood-thinning drug, which is also more expensive, at preventing blood clots

正确答案A
如果B中第二个a删去,则AB都是对的

此时修饰比较对象的只有形容词,没有modifier(介词短语/从句/etc.)
A.        prevents blood clots just as well as a commonly used and more expensive blood-thinning drug does
B.        prevents blood clots just as well as does a commonly used and more expensive blood-thinning drug
(3)as…as比较中,比较对象的谓语动词单复数不同时,不一定要补出来
As…as比较中,比较对象的谓语动词单复数不同时,不一定要补出来

举例:
According to a 1996 study published in the Journal of Human Resources, Americans of Middle Eastern descent were twice as likely as was the national average to be self-employed.
(A) as was the national average to be self-employed
(B) as the average American to be self-employed
(C) as the national average that they would be self-employed
(D) to be self-employed than was the average American
(E) that they would be self-employed than was the national average

正确答案B
错选A,因为认为单复数不同时,was要补出
但实际不是这样的,在比较中也是,即使比较对象应用的谓语动词or be动词不同,也不用补出
"as ADJECTIVE as..." and "as ADVERB as..." are extremely common expressions to indicate equality in some measure (or inequality, if some multiple or percentage is in front of the construction). e.g.
i am exactly as tall as my brother.
my suitcase is twice as large as my wife's.
since this construction is universally the same for any possible adjective or adverb (excluding adjectives and adverbs for which such comparisons just don't make any sense), you're not going to see it listed for specific adjectives such as "likely".
you don't need another verb there. (i can write "I am older than you", even though the verb "am" doesn't apply to "you".)

A选项错误:
'the national average' would be exactly what it says: an average.
i.e., some kind of statistic.
'the national average' is not a person, so that option is nonsense.

注意:此原则可以扩展到比较结构中去,例如比较级
(4)as…as正确的多种结构
在as修饰词是单数的时候,以下两种结构都是正确的
As small a collection as three pirated albums has occasionally drawn the attention of the recording industry.
In this case, 'collection', not 'albums', is the subject of 'has drawn' (which can be inferred from the fact that 'has' is singular).
This is the case because this sentence is equivalent to the following rearranged version:
A collection as small as three pirated albums has occasionally drawn the attention of the recording industry.
再次强调:As small a collection as three pirated albums是只有collection是单数的情况下才可以这么表达的

More generally, you can't have "as + adj + PLURAL + as...". This construction is only ok if the noun is singular.
e.g.
I have never met as despicable a person as your sister's boyfriend.
or
I have never met a person as despicable as your sister's boyfriend.
Both correct
I have never met people as despicable as your friends.
--> correct
* BUT *
I have never met as despicable people as your friends.
--> Incorrect.
By the way, this is not something i ever learned consciously, but it's something that i can figure out by considering enough examples.
This point is an excellent illustration of why it's important to develop an intuitive feeling for the way the language works. no one is going to learn -- or teach -- all of these things as "rules", but, by observing the language with an eye toward developing your intuition, you'll be able to figure a lot of them out.

举例:
Mixed with an equal part of water, ethylene glycol, a compound commonly used as an automotive antifreeze, is effective at temperatures as low as –30 degrees Fahrenheit.
A. temperatures as low
B. temperatures so low
C. as low temperatures
D. as few
E. as little

正确答案A
对于C选项
* 介词后面直接接名词比较好
* Temperatures是复数,不能as low temperatures as...这么使用

The Environmental Protection Agency frequently puts mandatory controls on toxic substances that present as little risk as one in a million chances to cause cancer.
A. as little risk as one in a million chances to cause
B. as little risk as one chance in a million of causing
C. as little risk as one chance in a million that it will cause
D. a risk as little as one chance in a million for causing
E. a risk as little as one chance in a million for it to cause

正确答案B
因为million的用法才选择B
one chance in a million of doing sth
as little risk as one chance in a million of causing
a risk as little as one a chance in a million of causing
以上两种用法均是对的

2.        As的固定搭配
(1)Not so much....as....
Not so much....as.... 与其说是...不如说是(要求元素并列)
(2)In as much as
In as much as 由于,既然,因为(连词)
(3)As much...as...
遵循元素并列原则

举例:
According to one expert, the cause of genetic irregularities in many breeds of dog is not so much that dogs are being bred for looks or to meet other narrow criteria as that the breeds have relatively few founding members.
A. the cause of genetic irregularities in many breeds of dog is not so much that dogs are being bred for looks or to meet other narrow criteria
B. the cause of genetic irregularities in many breeds of dog is not as much their being bred for looks or meeting other narrow criteria as much
C. it is not so much the cause of genetic irregularities in many breeds of dog that they are being bred for looks or meeting other narrow criteria as much
D. it is not so much that the cause of genetic irregularities in many breeds of dog is their being bred for looks or meeting other narrow criteria so much
E. it is not so much the cause of genetic irregularities in many breeds of dog to be bred for looks or to meet other narrow criteria

正确答案A
The cause of genetic irregularities in many breeds of dog is not so much that dogs are being bred for looks or to meet other narrow criteria as that the breeds have relatively few founding members.

(4)As....as....
So...as...只能用于否定句中
注:so单独使用时并不是只能用于否定句中,so可以表示程度修饰形容词
       
举例:
Retailers reported moderate gains in their November sales, as much because of their sales of a year earlier being so bad as that shoppers were getting a head start on buying their holiday gifts.
A. of their sales of a year earlier being so bad as that
B. of their sales a year earlier having been as bad as because
C. of their sales a year earlier being as bad as because
D. their sales a year earlier had been so bad as because
E. their sales of a year earlier were as bad as that

正确选项D
as much because their sales a year earlier had been so bad as because
So表示程度副词

3.        As…as不一定会成对出现

When the first part of the comparison appears before "at least as", you don't require another "as" in the sentence.
For example:
Quote:
Bob makes a mean pizza, but Fred's spaghetti is at least as good.
Quote:
Die Hard 2 was a thrill ride from start to finish, but Die Hard 4 was at least as exciting.
and in this question:
Quote:
Although government policy is influential, management decisions have at least as great an impact.

举例:
When drive-ins were at the height of their popularity in the late 1950’s, some 4,000 existed in the United States, but today there are less than one-quarter that many.
A. there are less than one-quarter that many
B. there are fewer than one-quarter as many
C. there are fewer than one-quarter of that amount
D. the number is less than one-quarter the amount
E. it is less than one-quarter of that amount

正确答案B
When drive-ins were at the height of their popularity in the late 1950’s, some 4,000 existed in the United States, but today there are fewer than one-quarter as many.
注意:It’s incorrect to use "amount" for things like drive-in movie theaters, which are countable, so (c) is out.

One study found that although government policy and the industrial sector in which a company operates can influence its productivity and financial strength, management decisions have at least as great an impact on a company’s performance.
A.        management decisions have at least as great an impact
B.        decisions by management have a great impact
C.        manager decisions impact greatly
D.        decisions by a company’s management impact greatly
E.        what a company’s management decides has a greater impact

正确答案A
One study found that although government policy and the industrial sector in which a company operates can influence its productivity and financial strength, management decisions have at least as great an impact on a company’s performance.
遇到这种题,前后一定有联系,例如对比comparison
关于选项B 没有做出两者比较,与meaning不符,并且decisions by management与government policy不平行
选项CD impact作动词直接接宾语,不接on
选项E 不符合平行结构并且greater 改变了原意
The word “although” at the beginning of the sentence signals that the underlined portion must draw a comparison between the impact of management decisions and the impact of government policy and industrial sector on a company’s performance. The original sentence correctly draws this comparison with the phrase “at least as great an impact.” Also, "government policy," "industrial sector," and "management decisions" are all correctly parallel (which is required because they are part of the same comparison).
(A) CORRECT. This choice is correct as it repeats the original sentence.
(B) This choice tells us only about the impact of management decisions ("have a great impact") rather than drawing a comparison between the impact of management decisions and the impact of government policy and the industrial sector of a company. Also, “decisions by management” is wordy and nonparallel to “government policy.”
(C) This choice tells us only about the impact of management decisions ("have a great impact") rather than drawing a comparison between the impact of management decisions and the impact of government policy and the industrial sector of a company. Additionally, “manager decisions” is awkward relative to the more commonly used term “management decisions.” Finally, decisions do not "impact on" performance;  they impact performance.
(D) This choice tells us only about the impact of management decisions ("have a great impact") rather than drawing a comparison between the impact of management decisions and the impact of government policy and the industrial sector of a company. “Decisions by a company’s management” is wordy and redundant, as “a company” is repeated in the non-underlined portion of the sentence.
(E) This choice does draw a comparison between the impact of management decisions and the impact of government policy and industry sector on company performance; it does not do so in parallel form, however.  The comparison also changes the original meaning of the sentence. In addition, the phrase “what a company’s management decides” is wordy and redundant, as "a company" is repeated in the non-underlined portion of the sentence.

延伸:
关于impact 的用法
        Impact sth
        Have a great impact on sth
4.        As作为比较含义,与like用法对比
(1) Like/unlike后面只能接名词
"Like" should be followed by a noun (or noun plus modifiers, if there are any of those).

"Those babies are cute, like little pandas sliding down rainbows" -- CORRECT!
注意:
* "sliding" is NOT a verb.
* "sliding down rainbows" is a modifier, and thus doesn't have to be considered in the grammar of the sentence.

举例
Unlike the previous year’s bidding, the contract this year was awarded not simply to the firm offering to complete the work on time for the least cost; the thoroughness of the design submission was also factored into the decision.
A.        Unlike the previous year’s bidding, the contract this year was awarded not simply to the firm offering to complete the work on time for the least cost;
B.        This year, unlike last year, the contract was awarded not simply to the firm offering to complete the work on time for the least cost;
C.        Unlike the previous year’s bidding, this year the contract was awarded not simply to the firm offering to complete the work on time for the least cost;
D.        Unlike the previous year’s bidding, the bidding for the contract this year was awarded not simply to the firm offering to complete the work on time for the least cost, instead
E.        Unlike the previous year’s bidding, the contract’s bidding this year were awarded not simply to the firm offering to complete the work on time for the least cost;

正确答案B
注意A:bidding和contact不是对等并列比较

There are no legal limits, as there are for cod and haddock, on the size of monkfish that can be caught, a circumstance that contributes to their depletion through overfishing.
A. There are no legal limits, as there are for cod and haddock, on the size of monkfish that can be caught, a circumstance that contributes to their depletion through overfishing.
B. There are no legal limits on the size of monkfish that can be caught, unlike cod or haddock, a circumstance that contributes to depleting them because they are being overfished.
C. There are legal limits on the size of cod and haddock that can be caught, but not for monkfish, which contributes to its depletion through overfishing.
D. Unlike cod and haddock, there are no legal size limits on catching monkfish, which contributes to its depletion by being overfished.
E. Unlike catching cod and haddock, there are no legal size limits on catching monkfish, contributing to their depletion because they are overfished.

正确答案A
注意E:like/unlike后面只能接名词
注意比较的是什么!!(读懂句意)
The sentence is NOT saying that monkfish ARE UNLIKE cod and haddock.
In other words, the sentence does not express any contrast between different types of fish.
Therefore, the appearance of "unlike cod and haddock" creates a nonsense sentence, regardless of whether it is grammatically legitimate.

Shoppers in sporting goods stores, unlike in department stores, do very little impulse shopping, not buying a pair of skis and a boomerang when they come in for a basketball, but they leave with a basketball only
A. in department stores, do very little impulse shopping, not buying a pair of skis and a boomerang when they come in for a basketball, but they leave with a basketball only
B. in department stores, shop impulsively very little; someone who comes in for a basketball will leave with a basketball only and not also buy a pair of skis and a boomerang as well
C. those in department stores, do very little impulse shopping, do not buy a pair of skis and a boomerang when they come in for a basketball, but leave with only a basketball
D. those in department stores, do very little impulse shopping; someone who comes in for a basketball will leave with a basketball only and not buy a pair of skis and a boomerang as well
E. department stores, shop impulsively very little; someone will not buy a pair of skis and a boomerang when they come in for a basketball but will leave with only a basketball

正确选项D
A B选项 like/unlike后面加介词直接排除

(2) Like…so 结构错误
举例:
Like the thorny ballooning of a frightened pufferfish or the sudden appearance of angry sapphire hoops for which the blue-ringed octopus is named, so the California newt's display of its red underbelly is a clear warning that predators ignore at their peril.

(A) so the California newt's display of its red underbelly is a clear warning that predators ignore at their peril  
(B) so it is at their peril that predators ignore the California newt's display of its red underbelly, a clear warning
(C) the California newt's displaying its red underbelly is a clear warning for predators, so they ignore it at their peril
(D) the California newt's display of its red underbelly is a clear warning that predators ignore at their peril
(E) it is at their peril that predators ignore the California newt's display of its red underbelly, a clear warning

正确答案D
A.        Like the thorny ballooning of a frightened pufferfish or the sudden appearance of angry sapphire hoops for which the blue-ringed octopus is named, so the California newt's display of its red underbelly is a clear warning that predators ignore at their peril.   WRONG!

(3) like/unlike对比,后面的对比对象前面不能有modifier或者其他元素
举例:
Unlike the steam locomotive, which required an hour or two of firing up before it was possible to move under its own power, nearly full power could be summoned almost instantly from the cold engine of a diesel locomotive.
A. it was possible to move under its own power, nearly full power could be summoned almost instantly from the cold engine of a diesel locomotive
B. it was possible to move under its own power, the diesel locomotive's engine, when cold, could produce nearly full power almost instantly
C. it could move under its own power, the diesel locomotive could summon nearly full power from a cold engine almost instantly
D. moving under its own power, the cold engine of the diesel locomotive could produce nearly full power almost instantly
E. moving under its own power, almost instantly a diesel locomotive could summon nearly full power from a cold engine

正确答案C
对于E选项:
Unlike the steam locomotive, which required an hour or two of firing up before moving under its own power, almost instantly a diesel locomotive could summon nearly full power from a cold engine.
Incorrect.

The original comparison starts with "Unlike the steam locomotive ... ", followed by a modifier. You can kill this modifier in your consideration of the basic structure of the sentence, as modifiers don't count as part of basic structure.
The next part is the main clause. Because the comparison is to the steam locomotive, you MUST start the main clause with "the diesel locomotive". You shouldn't precede that with anything - such as the adverb (almost instantly) in choice (e). in order for the comparison to be clear, you MUST begin the main clause with the item that provides the other half of the comparison.

Unlike many United States cities, where a river is no longer the focal point of urban life, the river in San Antonio winds through the middle of the business district, and the River Walk, or Paseo del Rio, is the city's most popular attraction.
(A) Unlike many United States cities, where a river is no longer the focal point of urban life, the river in San Antonio
(B) Unlike the river in many cities in the United States, which is no longer the focal point of urban life, in San Antonio the river
(C) Today the river in many cities in the United States is no longer the focal point of urban life, unlike San Antonio, where it
(D) In few United States cities today, a river is the focal point of urban life, but the river in San Antonio
(E) No longer do many cities in the United States have a river as the focal point of urban life, but in San Antonio the river

正确答案E
错选B
对于B来说:comparison isn't so good:
the second part should start directly with 'the river' (instead of 'in san antonio the river...'), so that the comparison is more clear.

Whereas in mammals the tiny tubes that convey nutrients to bone cells are arrayed in parallel lines, in birds the tubes form a random pattern.
A Whereas in mammals the tiny tubes that convey nutrients to bone cells are arrayed in parallel lines, in birds the tubes
B Whereas the tiny tubes for the conveying of nutrients to bone cells are arrayed in mammals in parallel lines, birds have tubes that  
C Unlike mammals, where the tiny tubes for conveying nutrients to bone cells are arrayed in parallel lines, birds' tubes  
D Unlike mammals, in whom the tiny tubes that convey nutrients to bone cells are arrayed in parallel lines, the tubes in birds
E Unlike the tiny tubes that convey nutrients to bone cells, which in mammals are arrayed in parallel lines, in birds the tubes  

正确答案A
E选项:Unlike the tiny tubes that convey nutrients to bone cells, which in mammals are arrayed in parallel lines, in birds the tubes form a random pattern.  Incorrect.
(4) As后面接句子或介词短语
(5) just as
just as 结构总结:
just as A do, so B do平行比较结构的习惯搭配:意思是:就如同A…, B…
这里的as不能用like, whereas替代
原因:
* like…so…不符合搭配习惯,应该去掉so…
* just as with和just like属于 wordy错误

下面三种形式无区别(后两种强烈语气,不可以随意删掉so)
前后都要用句子,不能只用短语。主从句都要尽量形式对称
Just as … , so …    Just as you sow, so you will reap      
Just as … , as …    Just as you sow, as you will reap      
Just as … , so too … 主句要部分倒装(so too后是主句)  Just as you sow, so too will you reap
Just as ..., ….
as..., so....          就像什么什么一样,你也应该怎么怎么样

错误结构总结:
just as… 错误结构(单独使用)
"just as" is a subordinating construction, so you can't follow it with a clause and nothing else.
like…, so/as…--- 错误结构:like的比较必须是严格对称的
Ron:it's unidiomatic to write "like X, so Y

举例:
Just like the background in art history needed by an archaeologist in order to evaluate finds of ancient art, the nautical archaeologist needs specialized knowledge of the history and theory of ship design in order to understand shipwrecks.
A. Just like the background in art history needed by an archaeologist in order to evaluate finds of ancient art, the
B. Just as an archaeologist who needs a background in art history to evaluate finds of ancient art, a
C. Just as an archaeologist needs a background in art history to evaluate finds of ancient art, so a
D. Like the archaeologist who evaluates finds of ancient art and requires a background in art history, so the   wrong
E. As evaluating finds of ancient art requires an archaeologist who has a background in art history, so the

正确答案C
对于E选项:Serious lack of parallelism.
It should be clear, from the context of the sentence, that there needs to be parallelism between the two clauses (both of which describe some sort of special skill set required by somebody).
The second part of the parallel structure (which isn't underlined, and which therefore dictates the form of the underlined part) is of the form "PERSON needs X to do Y".
Therefore, the first part should have this structure, or, at the very least, should have a structure that closely approximates this one.
Note the essentially perfect parallelism in the correct answer (c).
另外E选项单复数错误
5.        As is/was/would be the case of/with
(1) as +be + case的用法,不要求平行结构
正确介词:as is the case + prep. (of/with/in) + sth.

Eg. As was the case in post-world-war-i Germany, hyperinflation has been causing general unrest and panic throughout country x.
prep 1-39 As is the case with traditional pharmacies, prescriptions are the cornerstone of a successful on-line drugstore, since it is primarily prescriptions that attract the customers, who then also buy other health related items.
in the same way that…, as/so…也是错误结构
(2) as +be/in + case的几种时态
As in the case with 表示比较的case中的例子是真实的
this construction implies that "the case of X" is a real thing that happened (or is currently happening).
E.g.,
As in the case of President Clinton's impeachment hearings...
--> You can write this, because there actually were impeachment hearings against Mr. Clinton.
As in the case of President Obama's impeachment hearings...
--> You can't write this, because (as of the time I wrote this post) there has been no attempt to impeach Mr. Obama.

As is the case with表示比较的case中的例子是真实的
Like "As in the case of..." and "As is the case with...", this construction can only describe things that have actually happened.

As was the case with表示比较的case中的例子发生在过去
As would be the case with 表示比较的case中的例子是a hypothetical situation
"Would be" -- as usual -- represents a hypothetical situation. I.e., either (i) it's uncertain whether the situation will happen, or (ii) it definitely didn't happen but we're speculating about it.

As will be the case with表示比较中的case例子绝对会发生
If you're describing something that will definitely happen in the future, then use "As will be the case..."

举例:
Like any star of similar mass would do, once the Sun has exhausted the hydrogen in its core, it expands into a red giant, eventually ejecting its outer envelope of gases to become a white dwarf.

(A) Like any star of similar mass would do, once the Sun has exhausted the hydrogen in its core, it expands into a red giant, eventually ejecting
(B) Like any star of similar mass, once the hydrogen in the Sun's core is exhausted, then it expands into a red giant and eventually ejects
(C) As in the case of any star of similar mass, once the hydrogen in the Sun's core is exhausted, it will expand into a red giant, and eventually ejecting
(D) As any star of similar mass would, once the hydrogen in the Sun's core is exhausted it will expand into a red giant and will eventually eject
(E) As would be the case with any star of similar mass, once the Sun exhausts the hydrogen in its core, it will expand into a red giant and eventually eject

正确答案E

(3) as with the case of
(it's possible for "with the case of" to be correct, but the preposition "with" would have to make sense, AND you'd have to be literally talking about "the case of" something.
for instance: the lawyer made history with the case of X, as with the case of Y
unlike this example, the problem in this thread doesn't satisfy either of these requirements)

6.        such as与like
"n1, like n2" 和 "n1, such as n2"。
表“比如...”,只能用such as;
表“象...”时,用like。

(1)根据meaning判断是举例还是比较
不要一看到like与such as同时出现就认为是举例,直接排除了like
如果文中meaning是比较的话,就只能用like 不能用such as

例子:
There is generally agreement that feral swine are unwelcome - such as the Asian carp that are threatening to invade Lake Michigan, but that are far larger, more vicious and mounted on four legs.
A.        such as the Asian carp that are threatening to invade Lake Michigan, but that are far larger, more vicious and mounted on four legs
B.        like the Asian carp that have threatened an invasion of Lake Michigan, but far larger, more vicious, and mounted on four legs
C.        like the Asian carp that are threatening to invade Lake Michigan, but are far larger, more vicious, and are mounted on four legs
D.        like the Asian carp that are threatening to invade Lake Michigan, but far larger, more vicious, and mounted on four legs
E.        such as the Asian carp that threaten to invade Lake Michigan, but are far larger and more vicious, and mounted on four legs

正确答案D
Because this structure is drawing a comparison and not giving an example (feral pigs are not Asian carp...but they're similar to Asian carp in this respect), the structure "like" must be used, eliminating A and E. Choice B is illogical - the Asian carp have not announced plans to attack, so you cannot say they "have threatened". And choice C breaks parallel structure for the list at the end, using "are" on terms 1 and 3 but leaving it off of 2. Only choice D is free of these errors, so choice D is correct.

(2)Such as要紧跟列举对象
举例:
The emerging field of architectural climatology centers on the potential of as-yet-undeveloped architecture and landscaping to alter, redirect, or dissipate weather systems; for instance, hurricanes prevented from forming by artificial "reefs" of precisely shaped marine platforms.
A.        systems; for instance, hurricanes prevented from forming by artificial "reefs" of precisely shaped marine platforms
B.        systems; for example, artificial "reefs" of precisely shaped marine platforms that could prevent hurricanes from forming
C.        systems, such as hurricanes, which artificial "reefs" of precisely shaped marine platforms prevent forming
D.        systems, such as artificial "reefs" of precisely shaped marine platforms that can prevent hurricanes from forming   wrong
E.        systems; for example, hurricanes could be prevented from forming by artificial "reefs" of precisely shaped marine platforms

正确答案E
(A) The portion after the semi-colon (for instance, … platforms) is not a complete sentence.
(B) The portion after the semi-colon (for example, … forming) is not a complete sentence.
(C) Which ... "reefs" ... prevent forming is unidiomatic; from is needed between prevent and forming. Prevent appears in the present tense, illogically implying that the artificial reefs—which don't yet exist, according to the earlier part of the sentence—already prevent the formation of hurricanes
(D) The construction such as artificial "reefs" illogically implies that artificial reefs are weather systems. Additionally, the use of can in the present tense (as opposed to could) illogically implies that the artificial reefs—which don't yet exist, according to the earlier part of the sentence—do already exist.
(E) CORRECT. The semicolon is properly used to separate two complete sentences. Could is correctly used to describe a hypothetical consequence.

一、        As
1.        As…as
(1)as...as后面不可以接范围
as adj. as后面不能接范围,只能接value
例如:some of our players weigh as much as 300-325 pounds --> bad phrasing
      some of our players weigh as much as 325 pounds --> good phrasing

举例:
The single-family house constructed by the Yana, a Native American people who lived in what is now northern California, was conical in shape, its framework of poles overlaid with slabs of bark, either cedar or pine, and banked with dirt to a height of three to four feet.
A. banked with dirt to a height of
B. banked with dirt as high as that of
C. banked them with dirt to a height of
D. was banked with dirt as high as
E. was banked with dirt as high as that of       

正确答案A
(2)as…as比较结构助动词提前原则
只有形容词,没有modifier(介词短语/从句/etc.),助动词提前不提前均可(除后面例子外)
当有noun modifier的时候,助动词必须提前。

举例:
According to a study published in The New England Journal of Medicine, aspirin prevents blood clots just as well as a commonly used and more expensive blood-thinning drug does.
A. prevents blood clots just as well as a commonly used and more expensive blood-thinning drug does
B. prevents blood clots just as well as does a commonly used and a more expensive blood-thinning drug
C. prevents blood clots just as well as will a commonly used and more expensive blood-thinning drug
D. works just as well as a commonly used and more expensive blood-thinning drug at the prevention of blood clots
E. works just as well as does a commonly used blood-thinning drug, which is also more expensive, at preventing blood clots

正确答案A
如果B中第二个a删去,则AB都是对的

此时修饰比较对象的只有形容词,没有modifier(介词短语/从句/etc.)
A.        prevents blood clots just as well as a commonly used and more expensive blood-thinning drug does
B.        prevents blood clots just as well as does a commonly used and more expensive blood-thinning drug
(3)as…as比较中,比较对象的谓语动词单复数不同时,不一定要补出来
As…as比较中,比较对象的谓语动词单复数不同时,不一定要补出来

举例:
According to a 1996 study published in the Journal of Human Resources, Americans of Middle Eastern descent were twice as likely as was the national average to be self-employed.
(A) as was the national average to be self-employed
(B) as the average American to be self-employed
(C) as the national average that they would be self-employed
(D) to be self-employed than was the average American
(E) that they would be self-employed than was the national average

正确答案B
错选A,因为认为单复数不同时,was要补出
但实际不是这样的,在比较中也是,即使比较对象应用的谓语动词or be动词不同,也不用补出
"as ADJECTIVE as..." and "as ADVERB as..." are extremely common expressions to indicate equality in some measure (or inequality, if some multiple or percentage is in front of the construction). e.g.
i am exactly as tall as my brother.
my suitcase is twice as large as my wife's.
since this construction is universally the same for any possible adjective or adverb (excluding adjectives and adverbs for which such comparisons just don't make any sense), you're not going to see it listed for specific adjectives such as "likely".
you don't need another verb there. (i can write "I am older than you", even though the verb "am" doesn't apply to "you".)

A选项错误:
'the national average' would be exactly what it says: an average.
i.e., some kind of statistic.
'the national average' is not a person, so that option is nonsense.

注意:此原则可以扩展到比较结构中去,例如比较级
(4)as…as正确的多种结构
在as修饰词是单数的时候,以下两种结构都是正确的
As small a collection as three pirated albums has occasionally drawn the attention of the recording industry.
In this case, 'collection', not 'albums', is the subject of 'has drawn' (which can be inferred from the fact that 'has' is singular).
This is the case because this sentence is equivalent to the following rearranged version:
A collection as small as three pirated albums has occasionally drawn the attention of the recording industry.
再次强调:As small a collection as three pirated albums是只有collection是单数的情况下才可以这么表达的

More generally, you can't have "as + adj + PLURAL + as...". This construction is only ok if the noun is singular.
e.g.
I have never met as despicable a person as your sister's boyfriend.
or
I have never met a person as despicable as your sister's boyfriend.
Both correct
I have never met people as despicable as your friends.
--> correct
* BUT *
I have never met as despicable people as your friends.
--> Incorrect.
By the way, this is not something i ever learned consciously, but it's something that i can figure out by considering enough examples.
This point is an excellent illustration of why it's important to develop an intuitive feeling for the way the language works. no one is going to learn -- or teach -- all of these things as "rules", but, by observing the language with an eye toward developing your intuition, you'll be able to figure a lot of them out.

举例:
Mixed with an equal part of water, ethylene glycol, a compound commonly used as an automotive antifreeze, is effective at temperatures as low as –30 degrees Fahrenheit.
A. temperatures as low
B. temperatures so low
C. as low temperatures
D. as few
E. as little

正确答案A
对于C选项
* 介词后面直接接名词比较好
* Temperatures是复数,不能as low temperatures as...这么使用

The Environmental Protection Agency frequently puts mandatory controls on toxic substances that present as little risk as one in a million chances to cause cancer.
A. as little risk as one in a million chances to cause
B. as little risk as one chance in a million of causing
C. as little risk as one chance in a million that it will cause
D. a risk as little as one chance in a million for causing
E. a risk as little as one chance in a million for it to cause

正确答案B
因为million的用法才选择B
one chance in a million of doing sth
as little risk as one chance in a million of causing
a risk as little as one a chance in a million of causing
以上两种用法均是对的

2.        As的固定搭配
(1)Not so much....as....
Not so much....as.... 与其说是...不如说是(要求元素并列)
(2)In as much as
In as much as 由于,既然,因为(连词)
(3)As much...as...
遵循元素并列原则

举例:
According to one expert, the cause of genetic irregularities in many breeds of dog is not so much that dogs are being bred for looks or to meet other narrow criteria as that the breeds have relatively few founding members.
A. the cause of genetic irregularities in many breeds of dog is not so much that dogs are being bred for looks or to meet other narrow criteria
B. the cause of genetic irregularities in many breeds of dog is not as much their being bred for looks or meeting other narrow criteria as much
C. it is not so much the cause of genetic irregularities in many breeds of dog that they are being bred for looks or meeting other narrow criteria as much
D. it is not so much that the cause of genetic irregularities in many breeds of dog is their being bred for looks or meeting other narrow criteria so much
E. it is not so much the cause of genetic irregularities in many breeds of dog to be bred for looks or to meet other narrow criteria

正确答案A
The cause of genetic irregularities in many breeds of dog is not so much that dogs are being bred for looks or to meet other narrow criteria as that the breeds have relatively few founding members.

(4)As....as....
So...as...只能用于否定句中
注:so单独使用时并不是只能用于否定句中,so可以表示程度修饰形容词
       
举例:
Retailers reported moderate gains in their November sales, as much because of their sales of a year earlier being so bad as that shoppers were getting a head start on buying their holiday gifts.
A. of their sales of a year earlier being so bad as that
B. of their sales a year earlier having been as bad as because
C. of their sales a year earlier being as bad as because
D. their sales a year earlier had been so bad as because
E. their sales of a year earlier were as bad as that

正确选项D
as much because their sales a year earlier had been so bad as because
So表示程度副词

3.        As…as不一定会成对出现

When the first part of the comparison appears before "at least as", you don't require another "as" in the sentence.
For example:
Quote:
Bob makes a mean pizza, but Fred's spaghetti is at least as good.
Quote:
Die Hard 2 was a thrill ride from start to finish, but Die Hard 4 was at least as exciting.
and in this question:
Quote:
Although government policy is influential, management decisions have at least as great an impact.

举例:
When drive-ins were at the height of their popularity in the late 1950’s, some 4,000 existed in the United States, but today there are less than one-quarter that many.
A. there are less than one-quarter that many
B. there are fewer than one-quarter as many
C. there are fewer than one-quarter of that amount
D. the number is less than one-quarter the amount
E. it is less than one-quarter of that amount

正确答案B
When drive-ins were at the height of their popularity in the late 1950’s, some 4,000 existed in the United States, but today there are fewer than one-quarter as many.
注意:It’s incorrect to use "amount" for things like drive-in movie theaters, which are countable, so (c) is out.

One study found that although government policy and the industrial sector in which a company operates can influence its productivity and financial strength, management decisions have at least as great an impact on a company’s performance.
A.        management decisions have at least as great an impact
B.        decisions by management have a great impact
C.        manager decisions impact greatly
D.        decisions by a company’s management impact greatly
E.        what a company’s management decides has a greater impact

正确答案A
One study found that although government policy and the industrial sector in which a company operates can influence its productivity and financial strength, management decisions have at least as great an impact on a company’s performance.
遇到这种题,前后一定有联系,例如对比comparison
关于选项B 没有做出两者比较,与meaning不符,并且decisions by management与government policy不平行
选项CD impact作动词直接接宾语,不接on
选项E 不符合平行结构并且greater 改变了原意
The word “although” at the beginning of the sentence signals that the underlined portion must draw a comparison between the impact of management decisions and the impact of government policy and industrial sector on a company’s performance. The original sentence correctly draws this comparison with the phrase “at least as great an impact.” Also, "government policy," "industrial sector," and "management decisions" are all correctly parallel (which is required because they are part of the same comparison).
(A) CORRECT. This choice is correct as it repeats the original sentence.
(B) This choice tells us only about the impact of management decisions ("have a great impact") rather than drawing a comparison between the impact of management decisions and the impact of government policy and the industrial sector of a company. Also, “decisions by management” is wordy and nonparallel to “government policy.”
(C) This choice tells us only about the impact of management decisions ("have a great impact") rather than drawing a comparison between the impact of management decisions and the impact of government policy and the industrial sector of a company. Additionally, “manager decisions” is awkward relative to the more commonly used term “management decisions.” Finally, decisions do not "impact on" performance;  they impact performance.
(D) This choice tells us only about the impact of management decisions ("have a great impact") rather than drawing a comparison between the impact of management decisions and the impact of government policy and the industrial sector of a company. “Decisions by a company’s management” is wordy and redundant, as “a company” is repeated in the non-underlined portion of the sentence.
(E) This choice does draw a comparison between the impact of management decisions and the impact of government policy and industry sector on company performance; it does not do so in parallel form, however.  The comparison also changes the original meaning of the sentence. In addition, the phrase “what a company’s management decides” is wordy and redundant, as "a company" is repeated in the non-underlined portion of the sentence.

延伸:
关于impact 的用法
        Impact sth
        Have a great impact on sth
4.        As作为比较含义,与like用法对比
(1) Like/unlike后面只能接名词
"Like" should be followed by a noun (or noun plus modifiers, if there are any of those).

"Those babies are cute, like little pandas sliding down rainbows" -- CORRECT!
注意:
* "sliding" is NOT a verb.
* "sliding down rainbows" is a modifier, and thus doesn't have to be considered in the grammar of the sentence.

举例
Unlike the previous year’s bidding, the contract this year was awarded not simply to the firm offering to complete the work on time for the least cost; the thoroughness of the design submission was also factored into the decision.
A.        Unlike the previous year’s bidding, the contract this year was awarded not simply to the firm offering to complete the work on time for the least cost;
B.        This year, unlike last year, the contract was awarded not simply to the firm offering to complete the work on time for the least cost;
C.        Unlike the previous year’s bidding, this year the contract was awarded not simply to the firm offering to complete the work on time for the least cost;
D.        Unlike the previous year’s bidding, the bidding for the contract this year was awarded not simply to the firm offering to complete the work on time for the least cost, instead
E.        Unlike the previous year’s bidding, the contract’s bidding this year were awarded not simply to the firm offering to complete the work on time for the least cost;

正确答案B
注意A:bidding和contact不是对等并列比较

There are no legal limits, as there are for cod and haddock, on the size of monkfish that can be caught, a circumstance that contributes to their depletion through overfishing.
A. There are no legal limits, as there are for cod and haddock, on the size of monkfish that can be caught, a circumstance that contributes to their depletion through overfishing.
B. There are no legal limits on the size of monkfish that can be caught, unlike cod or haddock, a circumstance that contributes to depleting them because they are being overfished.
C. There are legal limits on the size of cod and haddock that can be caught, but not for monkfish, which contributes to its depletion through overfishing.
D. Unlike cod and haddock, there are no legal size limits on catching monkfish, which contributes to its depletion by being overfished.
E. Unlike catching cod and haddock, there are no legal size limits on catching monkfish, contributing to their depletion because they are overfished.

正确答案A
注意E:like/unlike后面只能接名词
注意比较的是什么!!(读懂句意)
The sentence is NOT saying that monkfish ARE UNLIKE cod and haddock.
In other words, the sentence does not express any contrast between different types of fish.
Therefore, the appearance of "unlike cod and haddock" creates a nonsense sentence, regardless of whether it is grammatically legitimate.

Shoppers in sporting goods stores, unlike in department stores, do very little impulse shopping, not buying a pair of skis and a boomerang when they come in for a basketball, but they leave with a basketball only
A. in department stores, do very little impulse shopping, not buying a pair of skis and a boomerang when they come in for a basketball, but they leave with a basketball only
B. in department stores, shop impulsively very little; someone who comes in for a basketball will leave with a basketball only and not also buy a pair of skis and a boomerang as well
C. those in department stores, do very little impulse shopping, do not buy a pair of skis and a boomerang when they come in for a basketball, but leave with only a basketball
D. those in department stores, do very little impulse shopping; someone who comes in for a basketball will leave with a basketball only and not buy a pair of skis and a boomerang as well
E. department stores, shop impulsively very little; someone will not buy a pair of skis and a boomerang when they come in for a basketball but will leave with only a basketball

正确选项D
A B选项 like/unlike后面加介词直接排除

(2) Like…so 结构错误
举例:
Like the thorny ballooning of a frightened pufferfish or the sudden appearance of angry sapphire hoops for which the blue-ringed octopus is named, so the California newt's display of its red underbelly is a clear warning that predators ignore at their peril.

(A) so the California newt's display of its red underbelly is a clear warning that predators ignore at their peril  
(B) so it is at their peril that predators ignore the California newt's display of its red underbelly, a clear warning
(C) the California newt's displaying its red underbelly is a clear warning for predators, so they ignore it at their peril
(D) the California newt's display of its red underbelly is a clear warning that predators ignore at their peril
(E) it is at their peril that predators ignore the California newt's display of its red underbelly, a clear warning

正确答案D
A.        Like the thorny ballooning of a frightened pufferfish or the sudden appearance of angry sapphire hoops for which the blue-ringed octopus is named, so the California newt's display of its red underbelly is a clear warning that predators ignore at their peril.   WRONG!

(3) like/unlike对比,后面的对比对象前面不能有modifier或者其他元素
举例:
Unlike the steam locomotive, which required an hour or two of firing up before it was possible to move under its own power, nearly full power could be summoned almost instantly from the cold engine of a diesel locomotive.
A. it was possible to move under its own power, nearly full power could be summoned almost instantly from the cold engine of a diesel locomotive
B. it was possible to move under its own power, the diesel locomotive's engine, when cold, could produce nearly full power almost instantly
C. it could move under its own power, the diesel locomotive could summon nearly full power from a cold engine almost instantly
D. moving under its own power, the cold engine of the diesel locomotive could produce nearly full power almost instantly
E. moving under its own power, almost instantly a diesel locomotive could summon nearly full power from a cold engine

正确答案C
对于E选项:
Unlike the steam locomotive, which required an hour or two of firing up before moving under its own power, almost instantly a diesel locomotive could summon nearly full power from a cold engine.
Incorrect.

The original comparison starts with "Unlike the steam locomotive ... ", followed by a modifier. You can kill this modifier in your consideration of the basic structure of the sentence, as modifiers don't count as part of basic structure.
The next part is the main clause. Because the comparison is to the steam locomotive, you MUST start the main clause with "the diesel locomotive". You shouldn't precede that with anything - such as the adverb (almost instantly) in choice (e). in order for the comparison to be clear, you MUST begin the main clause with the item that provides the other half of the comparison.

Unlike many United States cities, where a river is no longer the focal point of urban life, the river in San Antonio winds through the middle of the business district, and the River Walk, or Paseo del Rio, is the city's most popular attraction.
(A) Unlike many United States cities, where a river is no longer the focal point of urban life, the river in San Antonio
(B) Unlike the river in many cities in the United States, which is no longer the focal point of urban life, in San Antonio the river
(C) Today the river in many cities in the United States is no longer the focal point of urban life, unlike San Antonio, where it
(D) In few United States cities today, a river is the focal point of urban life, but the river in San Antonio
(E) No longer do many cities in the United States have a river as the focal point of urban life, but in San Antonio the river

正确答案E
错选B
对于B来说:comparison isn't so good:
the second part should start directly with 'the river' (instead of 'in san antonio the river...'), so that the comparison is more clear.

Whereas in mammals the tiny tubes that convey nutrients to bone cells are arrayed in parallel lines, in birds the tubes form a random pattern.
A Whereas in mammals the tiny tubes that convey nutrients to bone cells are arrayed in parallel lines, in birds the tubes
B Whereas the tiny tubes for the conveying of nutrients to bone cells are arrayed in mammals in parallel lines, birds have tubes that  
C Unlike mammals, where the tiny tubes for conveying nutrients to bone cells are arrayed in parallel lines, birds' tubes  
D Unlike mammals, in whom the tiny tubes that convey nutrients to bone cells are arrayed in parallel lines, the tubes in birds
E Unlike the tiny tubes that convey nutrients to bone cells, which in mammals are arrayed in parallel lines, in birds the tubes  

正确答案A
E选项:Unlike the tiny tubes that convey nutrients to bone cells, which in mammals are arrayed in parallel lines, in birds the tubes form a random pattern.  Incorrect.
(4) As后面接句子或介词短语
(5) just as
just as 结构总结:
just as A do, so B do平行比较结构的习惯搭配:意思是:就如同A…, B…
这里的as不能用like, whereas替代
原因:
* like…so…不符合搭配习惯,应该去掉so…
* just as with和just like属于 wordy错误

下面三种形式无区别(后两种强烈语气,不可以随意删掉so)
前后都要用句子,不能只用短语。主从句都要尽量形式对称
Just as … , so …    Just as you sow, so you will reap      
Just as … , as …    Just as you sow, as you will reap      
Just as … , so too … 主句要部分倒装(so too后是主句)  Just as you sow, so too will you reap
Just as ..., ….
as..., so....          就像什么什么一样,你也应该怎么怎么样

错误结构总结:
just as… 错误结构(单独使用)
"just as" is a subordinating construction, so you can't follow it with a clause and nothing else.
like…, so/as…--- 错误结构:like的比较必须是严格对称的
Ron:it's unidiomatic to write "like X, so Y

举例:
Just like the background in art history needed by an archaeologist in order to evaluate finds of ancient art, the nautical archaeologist needs specialized knowledge of the history and theory of ship design in order to understand shipwrecks.
A. Just like the background in art history needed by an archaeologist in order to evaluate finds of ancient art, the
B. Just as an archaeologist who needs a background in art history to evaluate finds of ancient art, a
C. Just as an archaeologist needs a background in art history to evaluate finds of ancient art, so a
D. Like the archaeologist who evaluates finds of ancient art and requires a background in art history, so the   wrong
E. As evaluating finds of ancient art requires an archaeologist who has a background in art history, so the

正确答案C
对于E选项:Serious lack of parallelism.
It should be clear, from the context of the sentence, that there needs to be parallelism between the two clauses (both of which describe some sort of special skill set required by somebody).
The second part of the parallel structure (which isn't underlined, and which therefore dictates the form of the underlined part) is of the form "PERSON needs X to do Y".
Therefore, the first part should have this structure, or, at the very least, should have a structure that closely approximates this one.
Note the essentially perfect parallelism in the correct answer (c).
另外E选项单复数错误
5.        As is/was/would be the case of/with
(1) as +be + case的用法,不要求平行结构
正确介词:as is the case + prep. (of/with/in) + sth.

Eg. As was the case in post-world-war-i Germany, hyperinflation has been causing general unrest and panic throughout country x.
prep 1-39 As is the case with traditional pharmacies, prescriptions are the cornerstone of a successful on-line drugstore, since it is primarily prescriptions that attract the customers, who then also buy other health related items.
in the same way that…, as/so…也是错误结构
(2) as +be/in + case的几种时态
As in the case with 表示比较的case中的例子是真实的
this construction implies that "the case of X" is a real thing that happened (or is currently happening).
E.g.,
As in the case of President Clinton's impeachment hearings...
--> You can write this, because there actually were impeachment hearings against Mr. Clinton.
As in the case of President Obama's impeachment hearings...
--> You can't write this, because (as of the time I wrote this post) there has been no attempt to impeach Mr. Obama.

As is the case with表示比较的case中的例子是真实的
Like "As in the case of..." and "As is the case with...", this construction can only describe things that have actually happened.

As was the case with表示比较的case中的例子发生在过去
As would be the case with 表示比较的case中的例子是a hypothetical situation
"Would be" -- as usual -- represents a hypothetical situation. I.e., either (i) it's uncertain whether the situation will happen, or (ii) it definitely didn't happen but we're speculating about it.

As will be the case with表示比较中的case例子绝对会发生
If you're describing something that will definitely happen in the future, then use "As will be the case..."

举例:
Like any star of similar mass would do, once the Sun has exhausted the hydrogen in its core, it expands into a red giant, eventually ejecting its outer envelope of gases to become a white dwarf.

(A) Like any star of similar mass would do, once the Sun has exhausted the hydrogen in its core, it expands into a red giant, eventually ejecting
(B) Like any star of similar mass, once the hydrogen in the Sun's core is exhausted, then it expands into a red giant and eventually ejects
(C) As in the case of any star of similar mass, once the hydrogen in the Sun's core is exhausted, it will expand into a red giant, and eventually ejecting
(D) As any star of similar mass would, once the hydrogen in the Sun's core is exhausted it will expand into a red giant and will eventually eject
(E) As would be the case with any star of similar mass, once the Sun exhausts the hydrogen in its core, it will expand into a red giant and eventually eject

正确答案E

(3) as with the case of
(it's possible for "with the case of" to be correct, but the preposition "with" would have to make sense, AND you'd have to be literally talking about "the case of" something.
for instance: the lawyer made history with the case of X, as with the case of Y
unlike this example, the problem in this thread doesn't satisfy either of these requirements)

6.        such as与like
"n1, like n2" 和 "n1, such as n2"。
表“比如...”,只能用such as;
表“象...”时,用like。

(1)根据meaning判断是举例还是比较
不要一看到like与such as同时出现就认为是举例,直接排除了like
如果文中meaning是比较的话,就只能用like 不能用such as

例子:
There is generally agreement that feral swine are unwelcome - such as the Asian carp that are threatening to invade Lake Michigan, but that are far larger, more vicious and mounted on four legs.
A.        such as the Asian carp that are threatening to invade Lake Michigan, but that are far larger, more vicious and mounted on four legs
B.        like the Asian carp that have threatened an invasion of Lake Michigan, but far larger, more vicious, and mounted on four legs
C.        like the Asian carp that are threatening to invade Lake Michigan, but are far larger, more vicious, and are mounted on four legs
D.        like the Asian carp that are threatening to invade Lake Michigan, but far larger, more vicious, and mounted on four legs
E.        such as the Asian carp that threaten to invade Lake Michigan, but are far larger and more vicious, and mounted on four legs

正确答案D
Because this structure is drawing a comparison and not giving an example (feral pigs are not Asian carp...but they're similar to Asian carp in this respect), the structure "like" must be used, eliminating A and E. Choice B is illogical - the Asian carp have not announced plans to attack, so you cannot say they "have threatened". And choice C breaks parallel structure for the list at the end, using "are" on terms 1 and 3 but leaving it off of 2. Only choice D is free of these errors, so choice D is correct.

(2)Such as要紧跟列举对象
举例:
The emerging field of architectural climatology centers on the potential of as-yet-undeveloped architecture and landscaping to alter, redirect, or dissipate weather systems; for instance, hurricanes prevented from forming by artificial "reefs" of precisely shaped marine platforms.
A.        systems; for instance, hurricanes prevented from forming by artificial "reefs" of precisely shaped marine platforms
B.        systems; for example, artificial "reefs" of precisely shaped marine platforms that could prevent hurricanes from forming
C.        systems, such as hurricanes, which artificial "reefs" of precisely shaped marine platforms prevent forming
D.        systems, such as artificial "reefs" of precisely shaped marine platforms that can prevent hurricanes from forming   wrong
E.        systems; for example, hurricanes could be prevented from forming by artificial "reefs" of precisely shaped marine platforms

正确答案E
(A) The portion after the semi-colon (for instance, … platforms) is not a complete sentence.
(B) The portion after the semi-colon (for example, … forming) is not a complete sentence.
(C) Which ... "reefs" ... prevent forming is unidiomatic; from is needed between prevent and forming. Prevent appears in the present tense, illogically implying that the artificial reefs—which don't yet exist, according to the earlier part of the sentence—already prevent the formation of hurricanes
(D) The construction such as artificial "reefs" illogically implies that artificial reefs are weather systems. Additionally, the use of can in the present tense (as opposed to could) illogically implies that the artificial reefs—which don't yet exist, according to the earlier part of the sentence—do already exist.
(E) CORRECT. The semicolon is properly used to separate two complete sentences. Could is correctly used to describe a hypothetical consequence.


发表于 2016-12-22 17:39:53 | 显示全部楼层
我好气啊楼主,我第二次还没第一次高
 楼主| 发表于 2016-12-22 17:42:19 | 显示全部楼层
nightman 发表于 2016-12-22 17:39
我好气啊楼主,我第二次还没第一次高

可以看一下加强报告,分析一下是自己哪一部分的原因~

考G就是这样,哎,心里要强大!我差不多半年都耗在GMAT身上了~

我的心经就这些啦~你可以看看有没有能够帮助到你的
发表于 2016-12-22 17:59:14 | 显示全部楼层
看一下
发表于 2016-12-22 18:41:34 | 显示全部楼层
看一下!               
发表于 2016-12-22 19:00:42 | 显示全部楼层
thanks
发表于 2016-12-22 19:15:05 | 显示全部楼层
看一下!               
发表于 2016-12-22 19:37:21 | 显示全部楼层
同意!               
发表于 2016-12-22 20:18:08 | 显示全部楼层
感谢分享!               
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