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[备考心经] 【从CR 8%至92%】原来CR也是有套路的!!

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发表于 2016-11-1 19:30:58 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
楼主一直是个逻辑渣渣说话一直都没什么逻辑
经常被作为辩论队队长及其有条理性的的男票鄙视(╬▔皿▔)凸
别说去辩论了
就更别说考GMAT这种语法要看逻辑, cr要看逻辑, 阅读也要看逻辑的心塞的考试了
然鹅, 楼主学的是商科......

回归正题
-----------------------华丽丽的分割线---------------------------

一战 CR 8%
知识点打底: CR bible, manattan CR
题目: 用了OG13/15/16, prep08
做题感觉: 一直是懵b的
OG13 正确率如下图: (演绎题错得不忍直视)


CR bible讲得很好, manhattan CR也讲得很好, 但是相当于只是一个知识点的基础; 主要目标是了解整个CR考试,以及掌握CR最核心的premise-concusion结构到底是什么意思, 同时不同类型的题目比如assumption啊, weaken啊, MBT到底是什么东西。 但是楼主一直觉得, 看了bible看了manhattan, 一直也是云里雾里的。
一位大神提点过我, CR不好,主要问题出在什么地方,是读不懂文章,还是搞不清reasoning?
1. 读不懂文章,这是基础的问题,请先把长难句把RC过一遍;
2. 不会reasoning,是每种类型的题目不会怎么做?--请把bible和manhattan过一遍
以上两种都不是?
比如我
楼主深入分析了自己的情况,不是都不懂,不是不会reasoning, 而是因为没有搞懂这篇文章的logic flow?没有搞懂文章重点! 没有搞清楚一些常见套路!


举个栗子:
In Borania manypeople who want to quit smoking wear nicotine skin patches, which deliver smalldoses of nicotine through the skin. Beginning next month, these patches can bepurchased without a doctor's prescription. Although nonprescription patcheswill be no more effective than those obtained by prescription and will beequally expensive, patch manufacturers are nevertheless predictingthat the patches' new nonprescription status will boost sales, which haveslowed considerably in recent years.


楼主一直没有明白, 这个nevertheless转折在这里用来干嘛。
其实这道题的logic flow是这样子的:

1. 在B地, 很多想要戒烟的人会穿尼古丁skin patch, 可以通过皮肤传递少量的尼古丁。
2. 在下个月, 这些patch就可以在不需要医生处方的情况下购买了。
3. 虽然非处方的patches和需要处方购买的patched一样有效, 价格也一样,


这是一道加强题, 前面给了你三个信息1、2、3,然后, 结论观点有转折, 转折说 “patch生产商预测patch的新的非处方的这样一个状态可以提升销售, 而这销售额在近年来是大幅度下降的”
这道题转折的含义其实是,前面的信息都是不能构成前提的,都是不能支持结论的!
所以只需要找一个证据直接加强结论就好了。
比如正确答案:
D. Many smokerswho want to quit smoking feel that they cannot afford to visit a doctor for aprescription. ----直接说明了一个非处方戒烟药可以提高销售的方法
----------------------------------------------

再来一个例子:
When people engagein activities that help others, their brain releases endorphins, the brain’snatural opiates, which induce in people a feeling of well-being. It has beensuggested that regular release of endorphins increases people’s longevity, anda statistic on adults who regularly engage in volunteer work helping othersshows that they live longer, on average, than adults who do not volunteer. However, that statisticwould be what we would expect even if volunteeringdoes not boost longevity, because __________.
当人们参与到帮助别人的活动时, 他们的大脑会释放endorphins, endorphins可以让人们感受到幸福.
人们认为有规律的释放endorphins可以使人长寿,
同时数据表明, 有规律的参加志愿活动的大人会比没参加志愿活动的人活得更久.

但是,即使志愿活动不能助长寿命, 这个数据也是可以得到的, 因为____

however之前一直在说volunteer work和happiness 啊endorphins的关系。however之后说, 即使volunteer work和人活得长寿没有联系, 说明人活得长不是endorphins导致的。
其实前面提供的只是背景的信息,我们要说明的是使however之后成立的内容,因此找一个其他的原因证明即使没关系,做了志愿者活动的人也能活得更长。
正确答案:
A. in thecommunities studied, women were much more likely to do regular volunteer workthan men were, and women tend to live longer than men do

女性在志愿者中占的比例比正常1:1要高, 而女性活得更长, 说明志愿者这个群体中本身就是活得更长的


所以,CR是有套路的!是有重点的!下面归纳一下常见的套路。

1. argument突然转折类型--找其他原因支持转折后的观点即可(如上面两道题)

2. 题目暗示方向类型

At present the hollywood restaurant has only standard-height tables. However, many customers come to watch the celebrities who frequent the Hollywood, and they would prefer tall tables with stools because such seating would afford a better view of the celebrities. Moreover, diners seated on stools typically do not stay as long as diners seated at standard-height tables. Therefore, if the Hollywood replaced some of its seating with high tables and stools, its profits would increase.


The argument is vulnerable to criticism on the grounds that it gives reason to believe that it is likely that
A) Some celebrities come to the Hollywood to be seen, and so might choose to sit at the tall tables if they were available
B) The price of meals ordered by celebrities dining at the Hollywood compensates for the longer time, if any, they spend lingering over their meals
C) A customer of the Hollywood who would choose to sit at a tall table would be an exception to the generalization about lingering
D) A restaurant's customers who spend less time at their meals typically order less expensive meals than those who remain at their meals longer
E) With enough tall tables to accommodate all of the Hollywood's customers interested in such seating, there would be no view except of other tall tables
这道题答案选C
为什么用“The argument is vulnerable to criticism on the grounds that itgives reason to believe that it is likely that”这么长一句话来提问,而不是简单的“strengthen和weaken”来提问,说明玄机就在这儿提问的句子中!
这句话的意思是:“因为the argument gives reasons to believe下面哪一项,所以导致这个argument非常vulnerable?”这句话提示我们:the argument本身是有问题,有逻辑漏洞的!C选项正提出了这个逻辑漏洞:大家既然坐高凳子是为看名人,怎么会坐坐就走呢?而原文说高凳子让人坐时间不长,明显就是逻辑上的悖论!D选项之所以被排除是因为它引入了新内容:“lessexpensive meals”, 原文的argument根本就没提meal price类的内容,又怎么可能是由原文argument导致的逻辑漏洞呢?

--------------------------------------------------------
再来个栗子:
Businesses aresuffering because of a lack of money available for development loans. To helpbusinesses, the government plans to modify the income-tax structure in order toinduce individual taxpayers to put a larger portion of their incomes intoretirement savings accounts, because as more money is deposited in suchaccounts, more money becomes available to borrowers.

Which of thefollowing, if true, raises the most serious doubt[url=]regarding the effectiveness of the government’s plan[/url]to increase the amount of money available fordevelopment loans for businesses?
这道题是典型的措施目的题,我们都知道措施目的题要削弱就直接“措施达不到目的”。这道题已经明显把方向放在plan上面了,只需要说plan不可行即可。
答案:(A) When levels of personal retirement savingsincrease, consumer borrowing always increases correspondingly.退休存款增加时, 个贷也同样增长---business的钱有可能没有增加


3. 以偏概全/范围扩大类型
Editorial:Regulations recently imposed by the government of Risemia call forunprecedented reductions in the amounts of pollutants manufacturers are allowedto discharge into the environment. It will take costly new pollution controlequipment requiring expensive maintenance to comply with these regulations.Resultant price increases for Risemian manufactured goods will lead to the lossof some export markets.Clearly, therefore, annualexports of Risemian manufactured goods will in the future occur at diminishedlevels.
P:政府限制企业排污,工厂要花钱购买设备,导致成本上涨,导致产品价格上涨
C:该国的出口额会下降
(注意!范围扩大了,从工厂到全国出口额)

这道题考Weaken,正确答案:
A. The need tocomply with the new regulations will stimulate the development within Risemiaof new pollution control equipment for which a strong worldwide demand islikely to emerge.  环保限制促进了排污设备的发展,该设备在世界范围有需求


4. Assumption题:常考公式固定的内容(最好列式子)
OG113. The averagehourly wage of television assemblers in Vinland has long been significantlylower than that in neighboring Bordia. Since Bordia dropped all tariffs on Vinlandtelevisions three years ago, the number of televisions sold annually in Bordiahas not changed. However, recent statistics show a drop in the number of televisionassemblers in Bordia. Therefore, updated trade statistics will probablyindicate that the number of televisions Bordia imports annually from Vinlandhas increased.

V装配工时薪比B低
B没有给V关税, B卖的电视机数量也没有增加
然而, 最近B装配工数量下降 à B从V进口的电视数量增加

(C) The averagenumber of hours it takes a Bordia television assembler to assemble a televisionhas not decreased significantly during the past three years.
当B生产的电视数量下降的时候才可能成立
产量=装配工人数*工作效率

C说平均时间没有减少, 就是说工作效率还是一样, 所以产量确实是少了, 成立


5. 考小词
A recent reportdetermined that although only 3 percent of drivers on Maryland highwaysequipped their vehicles with radar detectors, 33 percent of all vehiclesticketed for exceeding the speed limit were equipped with them. Clearly,drivers who equip their vehicles with radar detectors are more likely to exceedthe speed limit regularly than are drivers who do not.
The conclusiondrawn above depends on which of the following assumptions?

GAP是从: 装了超速雷达的司机更容易超速; 推导出, 装了超速雷达的司机regularly超速
Assumption:容易超速的也会regularly超速

答案: (B)Drivers who are ticketed for exceeding the speed limit are more likely to exceedthe speed limit regularly than are drivers who are not ticketed.
被ticketed到的司机更容易regularly超速


当然这样的规律还有很多很多, 比如:【回复可见哈♥】
1. 实验题里面经常考实验控制的变量合不合理,实验本身的对象有没有问题
2. 演绎题里面考比例和数量关系(比如那道大学文凭的毕业生)
3. 关注程度词比如dramatically, significant
4. 比如在一个削弱题里面说A政策导致人怎么怎么样, 选项说some people不怎么怎么样是不能达到削弱的啊
5. strengthen或者assumption里面就不要再选和原文重复的内容,因为这对reasoning没有效果。(但是注意有的题会很隐晦! 他给的选项是原文同样意思的detail化, 或者相同意思的例子, 非常容易误选,比如S和K超市那个比较便宜那题)
6. 直接引入新信息解释因果关系也是可以的啊(比如气候变化导致黄豆上升的那题)
..................
当然还有很多很多!
这是可以总结的!
自己总结的才有效!

STEP 1 看BAT大神的CR心经
传送门: http://forum.chasedream.com/thread-591112-1-1.html
读完这篇帖子,再仔细思考,可能要花你一晚上的时间。但是是完全值得的,里面说的很多thinking pattern,很多logic flow


引用一下BAT大神的原文
我们来read the stimulus very carefully. 如果你想知道什么叫carefully,BAT告诉你,这个得是靠你刷OG才能感觉出来的。在CR部分,我们刷OG,是为了去看OG解释中,它其中有哪些解释告诉了你一些隐藏的信息。比如,看一下OG Q13D选项的解释:我们就可以非常清晰地感觉到,在文中出现Specific time的时候,我们要去着重注意。类似地,通过刷OG CR,我们会感觉到有一些词需要我们特别的注意,BAT泛泛的总结过有: Quantity Words (就像如同half, twice这样的词),Qualified Adjectives(就是限定修饰词,比如OG Q21, C选项), Some Nouns (就是说如果原文说是A和B比较,我得大概知道A和B是什么),以及刚才说到的那个Specific Time.

但是,各位一定要去通过刷OG,看解释去自己找到那些你觉得重要的点,那些需要special attention的词,因为前人的总结(包括BAT的总结),都只是泛泛的写了下他们对某些词的高度概括的总称,但是具体是哪些词?!这个各位得通过看OG的解释,一次次地去整理,去感觉。

STEP 2 做OG、PREP08、PREP12
这三个材料就完全就够了!!
以前楼主刷了一遍OG错了一半,之后第二次刷觉得没什么用,因为都已经把答案给记住了。但是注意!请不要只是盲目做题!请做好选项分析!!!就算把答案记住了也要描述一下为什么要选它不选其他选项!
1)把argument的逻辑链理一遍(错题看自己reasoning那个部分错了,是PC搞错了,还是因果没读出来,还是类型没搞清楚,等等等;阅读能力不好的把全文翻译一遍祝理解)
2)看解析的reasoning部分
3)把各个选项仔细分析,再和OG或者prep解析相对应!
     这个部分还蛮重要的, 因为只有通过选项分析,你才知道这个选项本来是无关你是不是想成对原文strengthen了;这个选项如果是超出范围你是不是理解对了。

放一个自己分析的示意图, 供参考!

STEP 3 卡时间做, 1题2min内做完
STEP 4 去考试吧!华丽丽的出个好成绩

做着做着,当你发现CR曾经是最弱的一项,现在变成了最强的一项
曾经CR是多么多么恶心,现在发现每道CR题都在你自己的thinking pattern里面,只是换了个背景换了个主角换了个内容
换汤不换药
曾经楼主CR只有8%,相当于是13道题只对了1道
到现在楼主考试出来,成绩单上是满意的7字头,ESR发现CR已经提高到92%了,心情特别明朗♥

希望能帮到大家~~♥
希望大家都早日与G分手, 申到好学校!比心!


----------------------------------补充------------------------------------------------
关于选项
1
【无关选项的划分经常考!在难题里面】
Althoughfullerenes--spherical molecules made entirely of carbon--were first found inthe laboratory, they have since been found innature, formed in fissures of the rare mineral shungite. Sincelaboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions oftemperature and pressure, this discovery should give geologists a test case forevaluating hypotheses about the state of the Earth's crust at the time thesenaturally occurring fullerenes were formed.
原因:fullerenes要求特别温度和湿度
结论:thisdiscovery可以检测state of the earth's crust at the timefullerenes were formed.
正确答案作用:此discovery对于检测the state of Earth's crust at the time fullerenes没有用
Connection: theassumption that the way the fullerenes were formed in the lab is analogous tothe way they were formed in nature. 自然形成和在实验里面形成的一样

迷惑选项:
Some fullereneshave also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with aspacecraft. 一些F被发现在小行星撞宇宙飞船的残骸里, 就是说
这是个无关选项,题目里“thisdiscovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypotheses aboutthe state of the Earth's crust at the time 【these】 naturally occurring fullerenes were formed.” 而选项里说的是Somefullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite, 这是发现在meteorite上的fullerenes, 不是题干里的那些自然形成的 fullerenes 啊!

正确选项:
Thenaturally occurring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure.
国外论坛上的解释:Thenaturally occurring Earth fullerenes are definitely of a different structurethan the lab-made ones. If that's the case, then I can't just assume that theprocess to make them in the lab is analogous to the process to make themnaturally.


2
【因果关系里面:因果同时发生,同时消息经常会被误当成无关选项】
One summer, floodscovered low-lying garlic fields situated in a region with a large mosquitopopulation. Since mosquitoes lay their eggs in standing water, flooded fieldswould normally attract mosquitoes, yet no mosquitoes were found in the fields.Diallyl sulfide, a major component of garlic, is known to repel several species of insects,including mosquitoes, so it is likely that diallyl sulfide from the garlicrepelled the mosquitoes.

正确选项(D) Many insectspecies not repelled by diallyl sulfide were found in the flooded garlic fieldsthroughout the summer.

“很多不被Diallyl sulfide影响的昆虫物种在整个夏季都一直出现在水洼地.” 此选项提到对另外一些昆虫来说,Diallyl sulfide不起作用,则是因消失,而这些昆虫也没有减少或者灭绝,则是果消失。这是强调因和果同时发生,strengthen原文
国外论坛解释:Well this is new supporting premise. Many other species not repelled by diallylsulfide are available in the fields. So, we have a reason to believe that sincediallyl sulfide repeal mosquito not some other insect species hence mosquitopopulation is low.
我的理解: 直接取非, repelled by diallyl sulfide的昆虫在池塘里被发现, 明显weaken结论, 选!


3
【选项和题目不是在讲同一个东西/同一个topic】
Excavations of theRoman city of Sephora have uncovered numerous detailed mosaics depictingseveral readily identifiable animal species: a hare, a partridge, and variousMediterranean fish. Oddly, most of the species represented did not live in theSephora region when these mosaics were created. Since identical motifs appearin mosaics found in other Roman cities, however, the mosaics of Sephora werevery likely created by traveling artisans from some other part of the RomanEmpire.
P: 图案是外来的---->C: 图案作者是外来的

A. The Sephoramosaics are not composed exclusively of types of stones found naturally in theSephora area.
S的马赛克画并不只包含在S天然形成的石头----还包含其他地方形成的石头----但不能证明不是S画的
A讲马赛克图案的原料,但文中讨论的是马赛克图案的创作,它传进来的方式,无关

正确选项:
E. There was not acommon repertory (仓库, 储存) of mosaic designs with which artisans who lived in various partsof the Roman Empire were familiar.

没有一个通用的在罗马帝国不同地区都熟悉的马赛克设计库。需要外来艺术家来画,本地人不能创造----一定是其他地方画的


4
【选项有没有超出范围】
Earlyin the twentieth century, Lake Konfa became very polluted.  Recently fishpopulations have recovered as release of industrial pollutants has declined andthe lake’s waters have become cleaner.  Fears are now being voiced thatthe planned construction of an oil pipeline across the lake’s bottommight revive pollution and cause the fish population to declineagain.  However,a technology for preventing leaks is being installed.  Therefore, provided thistechnology is effective, those fears are groundless.
Assumption:
B.There is no reason to believe that the leak-preventing technology would beineffective when installed in the pipeline in Lake Konfa. ×
不能相信当安装管道时,防泄漏技术会无效, 超出范围, 因为题目中已经假设技术有效了








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发表于 2016-11-1 19:48:03 | 显示全部楼层
好案例,也就是说楼主之前是没把CR拆分明白,我这么理解对吗?
发表于 2016-11-1 19:54:26 | 显示全部楼层
Mark一下!               
发表于 2016-11-1 20:02:25 | 显示全部楼层
Mark一下!               
发表于 2016-11-1 20:04:29 | 显示全部楼层
感谢分享!               
发表于 2016-11-1 20:29:25 | 显示全部楼层
Mark一下!               
发表于 2016-11-1 21:00:42 | 显示全部楼层
同意!               
发表于 2016-11-1 21:23:08 | 显示全部楼层
Mark一下!               
发表于 2016-11-1 22:15:50 | 显示全部楼层
Mark一下!               
发表于 2016-11-1 23:05:10 | 显示全部楼层
看一下!               
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