ChaseDream
搜索
1234下一页
返回列表 发新帖
查看: 3176|回复: 32

[备考日记] 【揽瓜阁2.0】Day14 2020.06.28【人文科学-音乐】

[复制链接]
发表于 2020-6-27 20:31:17 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  揽瓜阁俱乐部第二期
  Day14 2020.06.28


【人文科学-音乐】
Does Music Boost Your Cognitive Performance?
(898字 精读 必做篇)

Music makes life better in so many ways. It elevates mood, reduces stress and eases pain. Music is heart-healthy, because it can lower blood pressure, reduce heart rate and decrease stress hormones in the blood. It also connects us with others and enhances social bonds. Music can even improve workout endurance and increase our enjoyment of challenging activities.

The fact that music can make a difficult task more tolerable may be why students often choose to listen to it while doing their homework or studying for exams. But is listening to music the smart choice for students who want to optimize their learning?

A new study by Manuel Gonzalez of Baruch College and John Aiello of Rutgers University suggests that for some students, listening to music is indeed a wise strategy, but for others, it is not. The effect of music on cognitive functioning appears not to be “one-size-fits-all” but to instead depend, in part, on your personality—specifically, on your need for external stimulation. People with a high requirement for such stimulation tend to get bored easily and to seek out external input. Those individuals often do worse, paradoxically, when listening to music while engaging in a mental task. People with a low need for external stimulation, on the other hand, tend to improve their mental performance with music.

But other factors play a role as well. Gonzalez and Aiello took a fairly sophisticated approach to understanding the influence of music on intellectual performance, assessing not only listener personality but also manipulating the difficulty of the task and the complexity of the music. Whether students experience a perk or a penalty from music depends on the interplay of the personality of the learner, the mental task, and the music.

In the study, participants first completed the Boredom Proneness Scale, which is a personality test used to determine need for external stimulation. They then engaged in an easy cognitive task (searching for the letter A in lists of words) and a more challenging one (remembering word pairs). To control for practice and fatigue effects, half of the subjects completed the easy task first, while the other half completed the challenging one first. Participants finished both tasks under one of three sound conditions: (a) no music, (b) simple music or (c) complex music. All of the music was instrumental, and music complexity was manipulated by varying the number of instruments involved in the piece. Simple music included piano, strings and synthesizer, while complex music added drums and bass to the simple piece.

The data suggest that your decision to turn music on (or off) while studying should depend on your personality. For those with a high need of external stimulation, listening to music while learning is not wise, especially if the task is hard and/or the music is complex. On the simple task of finding A’s, such subjects’ scores for the music condition were the same (for simple music) or significantly worse (for complex music) than those for the silent condition. On the complex task of learning word pairs, their performance was worse whenever music was played, regardless of whether it was simple or complex.

For those with a low need of external stimulation, however, listening to music is generally the optimal choice. On the simple task of findings A’s, such participants’ scores for the music condition were the same (for simple music) or dramatically better (for complex music) than those for the silent condition. On the complex task of learning word pairs, the participants showed a small but reliable benefit with both simple and complex music, relative to silence.

The results suggest that there are substantial individual differences in the impact of music on cognitive function, and thus recommendations regarding its presence in the classroom, study hall or work environment may need to be personalized. Students who are easily bored and who seek out stimulation should be wary of adding music to the mix, especially complex music that may capture attention and consume critical cognitive resources that are needed for successful task completion. On the other hand, students with a low need for stimulation may benefit significantly from the presence of music, especially when completing simple, mundane tasks.

All of the music used in the present study was instrumental, and lyrical music will likely be more complex. Complexity appears to increase arousal, and the Yerkes-Dodson law suggests that a moderate level of arousal produces optimal performance. When there is too little or too much arousal, performance drops. Thus, the benefits of music for those with a low need for external stimulation that were observed here could diminish or even disappear with the added complexity of lyrics.

Similarly, increases in the complexity of a cognitive task might also reduce or eliminate the benefit of music. Although the “complex” task used in this study (learning word pairs) was only moderately challenging, the increase in complexity, relative to the simple task, was enough to reduce music’s positive effect. With a highly challenging cognitive task (e.g., text comprehension or exam preparation), even those with a low need for external stimulation may fail to show such an effect with music.

With the right (low-need-for-stimulation) personality, the right (instrumental) music and the right (low-to-moderately-difficult) task, the presence of music may significantly improve cognitive functioning. Given the many other physical, emotional and psychological benefits of music, that subscription to Spotify just might pay for itself!

Source: Scientific American


【人文科学-音乐】
Music May Orchestrate Better Brain Connectivity in Preterm Infants
(329字 2分38秒 精听 必做篇)

先做精听再核对原文哦~


Fifteen million babies are born prematurely every year, worldwide. In some cases, the early births can be life-threatening—or cause developmental issues.

"They have more attention-deficit difficulties. They can have a higher risk of having autism, and in general socio-emotional regulation issues." Petra Hüppi, a pediatrician and neonatologist at the University Hospital of Geneva.

Now, she and her colleagues have evidence that a simple tool could help those preterm babies' brains develop: music. But before you cue the Amadeus:

"When I thought about Mozart, I thought, this is a very complex musical structure and I could hardly imagine that such an immature brain would be able to fully capture the complexity of Mozart."

So instead, she recruited the harpist Andreas Vollenweider, who worked with neonatal nurses to determine which sounds would most stimulate infants' brains. He then composed a suite of three eight-minute-long tracks, which the nurses played to 20 preterm babies using wireless headphones embedded in little baby caps. Each baby heard five tracks a week for about six weeks on average.

Then Hüppi's team used MRIs to visualize activity in the babies' brains, and what they found was that preemies who listened to tunes had brain networks that more closely resembled those of full-term babies compared to their counterparts who didn't get the treatment. The music listeners had greater connectivity among brain regions, such as areas involved in sensory and higher-order cognitive functions—indicating that music listening might have enduring effects on brain development.

The details are in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Of course, many questions still remain. “How much should they listen to that? Was the music given in the right way? Would it be much better if it was something more lively than recorded music? Was it too simple? Could it be more complex?"

But Hüppi said one thing parents can already do is sing to their children. Plus, she said, it doesn't really matter if you can carry a tune.

Source: Scientific American


【笔记格式要求】

精读笔记格式要求:
1.总结文章中心大意
2.总结分论点或每段段落大意
3.摘抄印象深刻或者觉得优美的句子
4.总结文章中的生词
5.记录阅读时间、总结时间、总时间

精听笔记格式要求:
1.逐句听写整篇文章
2.对照原文修改听写稿,标记出错原因
3.总结文章中心大意
4.总结精听过程中的生词
5.记录听写时间、总结时间、总时间

这里也给大家两点学习小建议哦~
精读:如遇到读不懂的复杂句,建议找出句子主干,分析句子成分,也可以尝试翻译句子来帮助理解~
精听:建议每句不要反复纠结听,如果听 5 遍都没听出来,那就跳过,等完成后再回听总结原因,时间宝贵,不要过于执着哦~


本帖子中包含更多资源

您需要 登录 才可以下载或查看,没有帐号?立即注册

x
 楼主| 发表于 2020-6-27 20:31:30 | 显示全部楼层
揽瓜阁俱乐部,自「language」一词谐音而来,是一个为帮助大家提升英语语言能力而建立的学习小团队。在这里,我们将定时发布涵盖各类话题的外刊语料,供大家练习精听、精读。同时还设置了严格的打卡机制,督促大家克服懒惰坚持学习。

同时我们也招募volunteer协助维护团队,确保学习活动顺利开展~大家一起营造积极向上的学习氛围~

想要提升英语能力的小伙伴,快快添加微信(theTOEFL)报名加入吧,让妥妥带你观尽天下新鲜事,览遍四海热议瓜~


如果你想加入,可以直接在本帖下完成你的学习笔记!如果想进入学习群聊,请直接联系妥妥。
发表于 2020-6-27 23:15:59 | 显示全部楼层
揽瓜阁 Day14
Dovis 2020 6 28
精读 Does Music Boost Your Cognitive Performance?
一 文章大意
科学家针对音乐是否能有效促进人类认知能力做了一项新研究。通过分析倾向量表的数据发现,智力表现的影响受个人性格/音乐类型/任务难度等因素的影响。正确的(需要低刺激)个性,正确的(乐器)音乐和正确的(低至中等难度)任务,音乐的存在可以显着改善认知功能。
二 段落总结
  • 音乐通过多种方式使生活变得更好,带给我们生理上和心理上的正面影响。
  • 音乐可以使艰巨的任务变得可以忍受,这是学生在做作业或学习考试时经常选择听音乐的原因。但事实是否真的如此呢?
  • 新研究表明,音乐对认知功能的影响部分取决于个人的性格,特别是取决于对外界刺激的需求。
  • 音乐对智力表现的影响还取决于任务的难度和音乐的复杂性等其他因素。
  • 研究要求参与者完成Boredom倾向量表,用于确定是否需要外部刺激。
  • 数据表明,在学习时打开(或关闭)音乐的决定应取决于每个人个性。
  • 对于那些外部刺激需求较低的人,听音乐通常是最佳选择,可以获得小而可靠的收益。
  • 研究结果表明,音乐对认知功能的影响存在很大的个体差异,因此有关音乐在教室,自习室或工作环境中的存在的建议可能需要个性化。
  • 研究中使用的所有音乐都是器乐性的,抒情音乐可能会更复杂。复杂性似乎会增加唤醒效果,而唤醒效果影响认知功能的性能。
  • 认知任务复杂性的增加也可能减少或消除音乐的好处。
  • 通过正确的(需要低刺激)个性,正确的(乐器)音乐和正确的(低至中等难度)任务,音乐的存在可以显着改善认知功能。
三 生词摘录
interplay 相互影响(或作用)
arousal (性欲的) 激起,激发; 唤起; 激起
subscription 订阅费,订购款,订阅,订购; (向慈善机构的) 定期捐款; (俱乐部的) 会员费; (服务的) 用户费; 会员费(或服务费)的交纳; 集体资助; 集体捐助;
四 句子摘抄
It elevates mood, reduces stress and eases pain. Music is heart-healthy, because it can lower blood pressure, reduce heart rate and decrease stress hormones in the blood. It also connects us with others and enhances social bonds. Music can even improve workout endurance and increase our enjoyment of challenging activities.
五 用时记录
通读 6min 总结23min 共计31min


发表于 2020-6-28 00:22:50 | 显示全部楼层
day 14 打卡

本帖子中包含更多资源

您需要 登录 才可以下载或查看,没有帐号?立即注册

x
发表于 2020-6-28 01:34:32 | 显示全部楼层
Day14

本帖子中包含更多资源

您需要 登录 才可以下载或查看,没有帐号?立即注册

x
发表于 2020-6-28 11:35:07 | 显示全部楼层
阅读笔记


中心大意


学习时听音乐,学习效果是否能更好?研究者开始了复杂的对比实验。结果发现,性格,音乐类型,学习任务的复杂程度,都会对音乐带来的效果有影响,可能是正面的,也可能是负面的。


段落大意

第一段:音乐可以舒缓压力,对健康有益。

第二段:音乐还可以使得艰巨的任务变得可以忍受

第三段:有学者者对音乐是否能提升学生的认知能力,学习效果做了研究,发现对某些性格的学生来说,听音乐是一种好策略,但对另一些性格的学生可能作用不大。

第四段:研究者发现有多种因素,在对音乐给学习带来的效果起着影响,所以他们做的研究采用了复杂的方法来评估音乐产生的效果。

第五段:受测者需要首先完成性格测试,然后再分成两个对比组,来进行音乐对学习效果影响的测试。

第六段:数据显示,对那些需要外部刺激的人来说,边听音乐边学习效果并不好,尤其是面对艰巨任务的时候。

第七段:但是对于哪些外部刺激需求低的人来说,边听音乐边学习,更能帮助他们完成学习任务。

第八段:研究显示,音乐对认知功能的影响,因个体差异而有明显不同的结果。

第九段:本次研究使用的音乐都是器乐性的,抒情音乐的话会更复杂。

第十段:认知任务的复杂性,也会增加或减少音乐带来的影响。简单的任务往往能在音乐刺激下做的更好,但复杂任务可能会被音乐分心,而导致结果变糟。

第十一段:
如果需要让音乐发挥正面作用,选择合适的音乐与挑选适当难度的任务,是非常重要的。


句子摘抄:

The results suggest that there are substantial individual differences in the impact of music on cognitive function, and thus recommendations regarding its presence in the classroom, study hall or work environment may need to be personalized.


Students who are easily bored and who seek out stimulation should be wary of adding music to the mix, especially complex music that may capture attention and consume critical cognitive resources that are needed for successful task completion.

Complexity appears to increase arousal, and the Yerkes-Dodson law suggests that a moderate level of arousal produces optimal performance.

单词摘抄:

mundane n.世俗的 平凡的

synthesizer n.电子合成器

paradoxically a.自相矛盾的

manipulatie v.操纵,手动




阅读时间12分钟,总结时间33分钟,共计 45分钟。



听力笔记
中心大意

早产儿往往会出现注意力不足障碍,甚至自闭症的风险。现在,研究人员正在尝试让早产婴儿听古典音乐,来帮助其大脑的发育。通过利用可视化技术,研究人员发现听音却的早产儿,其大脑各个区域的连通性的确更高。但究竟什么样的音乐能帮助早产婴儿更好的发育,听多久,等等细节还有待进一步研究。




错误原因
1学科名词不熟悉
2一些词的单复数没注意

生词摘抄

preemie n.早产儿
pediatrician n.儿科医生
Amadeus 莫扎特(的中间名)

immature  a.不成熟的
counterpart n.副本
听写时间28分钟 总结时间 26分钟 总计 54分钟





本帖子中包含更多资源

您需要 登录 才可以下载或查看,没有帐号?立即注册

x
发表于 2020-6-28 12:16:19 | 显示全部楼层
Day14

本帖子中包含更多资源

您需要 登录 才可以下载或查看,没有帐号?立即注册

x
发表于 2020-6-28 14:49:21 | 显示全部楼层
Day 14

本帖子中包含更多资源

您需要 登录 才可以下载或查看,没有帐号?立即注册

x
发表于 2020-6-28 16:24:12 发自手机 Web 版 | 显示全部楼层
精听
文章大意
早产儿可能会危及生命或发育迟缓问题。如今,科研人员发现,倾听音乐可以促进早产儿大脑发育。
生词摘录
Orchestrate 编配(或创作管弦乐曲); 精心安排; 策划; 密谋
Preterm 早产儿; 早产; 早产的; 早产儿多见
deficit 赤字; 逆差; 亏损; 不足额; 缺款额; 缺少
pediatrician 儿科医生
preemies 早产儿
counterparts 职位(或作用相当的人; 对应的事物
用时总结
听写31min 总结7min 共计 41.5min

本帖子中包含更多资源

您需要 登录 才可以下载或查看,没有帐号?立即注册

x
发表于 2020-6-28 16:29:37 | 显示全部楼层
D14

本帖子中包含更多资源

您需要 登录 才可以下载或查看,没有帐号?立即注册

x
您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 立即注册

Mark一下! 看一下! 顶楼主! 感谢分享! 快速回复:

所属分类: TOEFL / IELTS

ntu Advertisement
近期活动

正在浏览此版块的会员 ()

手机版|ChaseDream|GMT+8, 2022-12-1 02:26
京公网安备11010202008513号 京ICP证101109号 京ICP备12012021号

ChaseDream 论坛

© 2003-2022 ChaseDream.com. All Rights Reserved.

返回顶部