ChaseDream
搜索
查看: 12780|回复: 32

[备考心经] TOEFL听力笔记——我的记笔记方法总结

[精华] [复制链接]
发表于 2010-11-6 21:52:22 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
偶是全记法的拥护者
曾几何时用图像法相信记忆力一字不写做听力,后来发现容易走神,lecture特别是,全记法听完lecture一般不会头痛,比较适合我这种听力水准的。另外精神状态要放松,大概就是像在课堂上一样,是一种专心吸收知识而不是希望赶快听完完了的心态。
全记法写的时候是要用简写的甚至是一个字母,其实多数情况下都不需要再回去看笔记做题,所以笔记只是辅助听懂不要走神的一个工具,对我来说是哈。所以记的时候不能看着纸,这样会影响图像记忆,一般我都是看着空气手里不停的写。
T的听力语速一般都很快,手跟不上思路是很正常的,比如why和what为了不耽误时间记录下来可能就都只剩下W了,其实也无所谓,手是帮助脑来建立逻辑框架,脑子一定要跟上,手里记录的都是简写没办法回去看也无所谓,因为多数情况下也不需要回去看哈。(口语和写作听力不能这样)

进入状态不走神的方法:
图像法是非常重要的,只有听天文感觉自己在太空世界,听历史感觉自己回到过去,听conversation感觉自己在校园里穿梭,听生物感觉自己进入了森林或者回到了远古,才能保证基本不走神。
同时完全记录,帮助自己搭建框架。但是,一定不要为了记录而记录,不要因为没记录下来而去翻译一个词,或者回忆一个word的写法,或者回忆前面的内容,千万不要,只要跟着思路时刻成像,笔记本身不及理解重要。而T本身给了非常好的图片帮助听者进入场景,TPO做起来非常舒服,比一个空白的屏幕要更容易进入状态。

题型
conversation:一道main idea,四道细节(A细节,B细节, A目的,B 目的)——只是大概不绝对是这样
lecture:一道main idea,3道细节(黑板题,黑板上的新概念每个几乎都会考到,包括2道多选),1到目的,一道态度
lecture:一道main idea,4道细节(比lecture1难度大,很多非黑板题)一道目的(why mention)

conversation——life主题
一般是生活主题的,对话10个回合左右。难度较低


笔记方法
纵向:左右两边分出左右两个对话者X/Y,左边记X右边记Y
横向:把每个回合对话的问题,答复都用A so B的逻辑形式记录。可能是X提出A,X自己回答B1,都记录左边;Y回答B1不对,是B2,记录右边。
但是横向A用箭头对应B1和B2


目的题:

对话的目的会不断的转移中心,所以用A so B的形式会更清晰,某件事对应的某个目的就很明了。
比如问student为什么说A,你根本没听到学生提到A或者很模糊他问什么这么说,那么看选项,有一些逻辑上看起来很合理,但是用A so B的形式你发现所有的问题里只提到了其中一个选项,那这个选项概率最大。



细节题
前后可能会有冲突,后面说的可能会否定前面的,但是,肯定是话题A对应了答案B1和答案B2,后一个出现时否定了前面的。
笔记用A so B 的形式,B2出现时把B1打叉即可。


lecture
lecture可能在主题之后,有提问有铺垫,在解释之后有很多解释;可能出现第二主题以及更多的小范围跑题情况。lecture不是A so B的结构,也不能用conversation的方法。一定要用树形的结构去记录。比如point1,instance(分两叉),point2。。
一篇300字左右的lecture差不多是10-15个points,总有那么一两个地方是有分叉的,这时候一定要记清楚了对比。

一遍记关键字,一遍成像,并且带着expect的心态去猜下文,这样才能把全文穿起来,不然听完全是fractions。
划出段落,就是听的时候如果感觉出一个新段落,就空一行或者划分割线;后知后觉感觉出这段的关键字了,就圈出来提示自己。


笔记方法
纵向分成大概5-10个大的区域
写好main idea/example/或者一些自己能了解的符号,比如()代表反推的reason,箭头代表正推
重点在于分清每一段的主题


目的题
lecture的目的要看首段,全文的内容可能不见得高频重复这个关键字,要联系首段用全文内容推。
答案太相似时,重点看of前面的主语是什么(reduction of habitat还是 impact of ecotourism还是adaptation of humming birds)比较of前面的会好点
一般是在第二三句的样子,都不是第一句
purpose题(why prof mention/say。。)
区分段落的重要性就在这里,全记的话,在笔记里能定位这个被mention的东西(当然应该也记住了有印象)
如果几个选项觉得都不对,那就需要看笔记了,选占的篇幅比较大的那个。



细节题(what does prof say/imply)

直接从笔记里找

各种选项中遇到的障碍
能基本听懂和做对题太不一样了。有时候可能会出现以下几种障碍:
最后剩的两个选项都觉得对
比选项细节,可能某个字的差异就导致一个可能对的不对了
比如是否多加了not这种词,或者是否绝对化了等

最后剩的两个选项都觉得不对
比关键字,回忆原文涉及的主角。
比如全文都讨论一个volunteer job,答案出现了midsemester project,还有summer job,听的时候不记得有mid或者summer了很是纠结,这个是跟老师讨论的,而且是unpay的,还提到了最后的credit,纠结下要project好了。
发表于 2010-11-6 21:56:58 | 显示全部楼层
好,赞
发表于 2010-11-6 22:26:26 | 显示全部楼层
发表于 2010-11-7 23:58:11 | 显示全部楼层
谢谢分享~!
 楼主| 发表于 2010-11-8 22:40:31 | 显示全部楼层
复习笔记1人类学

话题:
prehistoric远古人的生活方式
colony近代殖民史——文化、考古发现、新的tech
infants behavior人类成长过程中每个过程的意义

关键字
archaeologist、archaeological site、anthropologist、colonial life、precise date
生词
sprout发芽;mastication咀嚼;prophecy预言
 楼主| 发表于 2010-11-8 23:08:49 | 显示全部楼层

复习笔记2历史学

主题:
architecture——某个历史上的建筑学家的作品特征
invention——发明史某engineeringlegislation——美国法律发展史
art——鉴定艺术的tech
Jazz/Blue——这种音乐如何的不同,它的代表人物等

关键词
sculputure雕刻;

生词
cramped and inefficient使收到约束难以发挥;
assembled (装配)in one huge plant
reinforced concrete(混凝土) had just been invented
the building sturdy(坚固) and fireproof
a masterpiece(杰作) of practical engineering
a flick轻弹 of my wrest
sixty acre plots(英亩、小块土地) to settlers
ranchers(牧场主) to limit the movement of their cattle
letting them roam(闲逛漫步) freely
barbs(鱼钩倒钩、刺人的), sharp, wire points like thorns(植物的刺、棘刺) were twisted onto wire fencing
retreated(退缩)
Reliefcarving浮雕
military conquest军事上的征服占领
the reign(统治) of the King
 楼主| 发表于 2010-11-9 23:05:34 | 显示全部楼层

复习笔记:一个lecture的points

Jazz
W:So, one of the things that I really have in trouble understanding is how jazzmusic developed to be so differentfrom many other kinds of music. My class notes are terrible.  

M:Well what can’t you understand from your notes?
W:Uh... One thing is I copy down the musical training from the blackboard. What did it mean bythat?  
M:Well most people who become professional musicians to have some kind of formal training in musicbut the first people who play jazz music had almost none.
W:Ok, but so what? Doesn’t it just mean that they weren’t very good musicians?  
M:Well, that’s not that the early jazz musicians weren’t good. it’s they that play their instrumentdifferently. Let’s say you are receiving formal instruction in the trumpet. First you wouldlearn the right wayto place your mouth and the right way to use your fingers and right way to blowair and then you will practice single notes and different combination of notes until you coulddo those correctly and only after that which your teacher give you a piece ofmusic to play.  
W:And the early jazz musician didn’t learn to play this way?  
M:No, the first people who play jazz music learn to play their instrument byactually trying to
play a songthey like! They were humanity and tried to play themselves on theirinstruments.
Becausethey were mostly teachingthemselves, they began to express themselves in ways that
formallytraditionally trained musician didn’t. In traditional instruction there’s one correct way toplay something and everyone who plays try to make the correct sound. But injazz…  
W:In jazz music, there isn’t one right way to play. In fact, individual musiciansare supposed to interpret the music in their own style. So you are saying that this aspect ofjazz developed because the first people who play jazz didn’t have any formalmusic training?  
M:Well that’s part of it but there is more. What else do you have in yournotes?  
 楼主| 发表于 2010-11-9 23:38:33 | 显示全部楼层

复习笔记-lecture的points

第三篇气象学
Firstof all, let’s look at why temperaturestend to be higher in city than in the rural area. This
happensbecause almost 50 percent of the urban areas are comprised of hard surfaces like pavedstreet, parking lot, buildings and roof tops. As the result, any amount of rainfall is quickly repelledby this service and carried away by storm drains and gutters. Especially waterjust doesn’t have the chance to stand around until evaporate and during theprocess of the evaporation that heat is removed from the air. So in citieswhere there is lessevaporation temperatures will be higher and of course there are also beissue of added heatcoming from building heating system, from industry, cars and even human body.Even we being in the city itself, temperatures can vary significantly. For example, in winter,streets that get a lot of use will be a lot of use will be 2 or 3 degree warmer than lesstravel streets. In place where car sits for a while like a stoplight can be inanother 3 degrees warmer. On the other hand, low spots in the city where coldair collect will be much colder than higher places. Rain and snowfall are also affected byurbanization. Cities tend to get quiet less snowfall than the surroundingcountryside because of warmer temperature in the city. But rainfall in the citycan be 5 to 10 percent higher. That happens because of two factors. First, the warmer city temperature,second the larger numberof dust particles in the urban air. It seems dust particles areimportant requirement for condensation. The water vapor in the atmosphere isable to change to liquid by planning to dust particles suspended in the air. Sowhere there’s the higher number of dust particles, condensation take place moreeasily. That’s why fogsand clouds are usually more frequent around the city. Once condensationtakes place the rainfall is not far behind. In the London area, for example,thunderstorms can produce 30 percent more rainfall than the surroundingcountryside. Some urbanclimatologists go so far as they argue that they can see a
patternincreasing the rainfall during the workweek. They believe rainfall amounts aresmall
aroundthe weekend because the dust particle generated by cars and factories arereduced.
发表于 2010-11-13 12:04:12 | 显示全部楼层
头像被屏蔽
发表于 2010-11-13 19:21:20 | 显示全部楼层
提示: 作者被禁止或删除 内容自动屏蔽
您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 立即注册

Mark一下! 看一下! 顶楼主! 感谢分享! 快速回复:

近期活动

正在浏览此版块的会员 ()

手机版|Archiver|ChaseDream京公网安备11010202008513号 京ICP证101109号 京ICP备12012021号

GMT+8, 2020-2-19 06:08 , Processed in 0.191644 second(s), 6 queries , Memcache On.

ChaseDream 论坛

© 2003-2020 ChaseDream.com. All Rights Reserved.

返回顶部