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发表于 2003-9-22 01:47:00 | 显示全部楼层


大家有没有觉的七宗罪问世已经太久了,大家用的太滥,于是我在googl search更多的common fallacy。来自

Fallacies of Distraction

False Dilemma: two choices are given when in fact there are three options

From Ignorance: because something is not known to be true, it is assumed to be false

Slippery Slope: a series of increasingly unacceptable consequences is drawn

Complex Question: two unrelated points are conjoined as a single proposition

Appeals to Motives in Place of Support

Appeal to Force: the reader is persuaded to agree by force

Appeal to Pity: the reader is persuaded to agree by sympathy

Consequences: the reader is warned of unacceptable consequences

Prejudicial Language: value or moral goodness is attached to believing the author

Popularity: a proposition is argued to be true because it is widely held to be true
Changing the Subject

Attacking the Person:
(1) the person's character is attacked
(2) the person's circumstances are noted
(3) the person does not practise what is preached

Appeal to Authority:
(1) the authority is not an expert in the field
(2) experts in the field disagree
(3) the authority was joking, drunk, or in some other way not being serious

Anonymous Authority: the authority in question is not named

Style Over Substance: the manner in which an argument (or arguer) is presented is felt to affect the truth of the conclusion

Inductive Fallacies
Hasty Generalization: the sample is too small to support an inductive generalization about a population

Unrepresentative Sample: the sample is unrepresentative of the sample as a whole
False Analogy: the two objects or events being compared are relevantly dissimilar
Slothful Induction: the conclusion of a strong inductive argument is denied despite the evidence to the contrary

Fallacy of Exclusion: evidence which would change the outcome of an inductive argument is excluded from consideration

Fallacies Involving Statistical Syllogisms

Accident: a generalization is applied when circumstances suggest that there should be an exception

Converse Accident : an exception is applied in circumstances where a generalization should apply

Causal Fallacies
Post Hoc: because one thing follows another, it is held to cause the other

Joint effect: one thing is held to cause another when in fact they are both the joint
effects of an underlying cause

Insignificant: one thing is held to cause another, and it does, but it is insignificant compared to other causes of the effect

Wrong Direction: the direction between cause and effect is reversed

Complex Cause: the cause identified is only a part of the entire cause of the effect
Missing the Point

Begging the Question: the truth of the conclusion is assumed by the premises

Irrelevant Conclusion: an argument in defense of one conclusion instead proves a different conclusion

Straw Man: the author attacks an argument different from (and weaker than) the opposition's best argument

Fallacies of Ambiguity
Equivocation: the same term is used with two different meanings

Amphiboly: the structure of a sentence allows two different interpretations

Accent: the emphasis on a word or phrase suggests a meaning contrary to what the sentence actually says

Category Errors
Composition: because the attributes of the parts of a whole have a certain property, it is argued that the whole has that property

Division: because the whole has a certain property, it is argued that the parts have that property
Non Sequitur

Affirming the Consequent: any argument of the form: If A then B, B, therefore A

Denying the Antecedent: any argument of the form: If A then B, Not A, thus Not B
Inconsistency: asserting that contrary or contradictory statements are both true
Syllogistic Errors
Fallacy of Four Terms: a syllogism has four terms

Undistributed Middle: two separate categories are said to be connected because they share a common property

Illicit Major: the predicate of the conclusion talks about all of something, but the premises only mention some cases of the term in the predicate

Illicit Minor: the subject of the conclusion talks about all of something, but the premises only mention some cases of the term in the subject

Fallacy of Exclusive Premises: a syllogism has two negative premises

Fallacy of Drawing an Affirmative Conclusion From a Negative Premise: as the name implies

Existential Fallacy: a particular conclusion is drawn from universal premises
Fallacies of Explanation

Subverted Support (The phenomenon being explained doesn't exist)

Non-support (Evidence for the phenomenon being explained is biased)

Untestability (The theory which explains cannot be tested)

Limited Scope (The theory which explains can only explain one thing)

Limited Depth (The theory which explains does not appeal to underlying causes)

Fallacies of Definition

Too Broad (The definition includes items which should not be included)

Too Narrow (The definition does not include all the items which shouls be included)

Failure to Elucidate (The definition is more difficult to understand than the word or
concept being defined)

Circular Definition (The definition includes the term being defined as a part of the definition)

Conflicting Conditions (The definition is self-contradictory)

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