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听力Conversation常见考点分享

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发表于 2020-2-2 19:32:34 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
2019年托福进行了改革。其中听力部分,考题进行了一些调整。Lecture讲座比原来少了一篇。Conversation对话则维持不变。所以对话部分的重要性,相对来说是提升了。这里就conversation的常见考点,进行一些分享,希望能够帮到大家。

Conversation的最基本结构

无论是TPO,还是一些同学分享的考试回顾,都能看出,conversation 是有一个基本的结构框架的。其中最基本的结构是:

提出问题 -- 讨论问题 -- 解决问题

几乎所有的conversation都遵循这个框架。而且,考点一般也都分布在这个框架之中。尤其是提出问题,和解决问题两个部分。几乎必定会出现考点。然后在讨论问题的部分,也经常会出现一些细节题。当然,有的时候,题目的顺序未必会严格按照上面的框架产生。因为有时对话会先聊一些其他的内容做铺垫,然后学生再提出他的问题。所以,对于对话的前几个回合,也要注意不一定马上出现主题,但可能会有细节被考到。


Conversation的高频考点

这里列出三种常见的考点

A.学生主要面临的问题是什么

这类问题往往是对话的核心,一般围绕学生的一个具体的问题(困难)展开。作为考点,通常出现在对话的开头,在结构上,往往属于“提出问题”。大多数情况会考察是什么问题(what),有时也会考察学生为什么会有这种问题(Why)

B.学生纠结的问题与老师 (或工作人员的) 建议

所谓纠结,其实就是学生对一个问题,非常犹豫。往往既想去做 ,但又不做不了或做不到。具体来说,学生的决策常被重复讨论。这时,可能会考学生在纠结什么(what),也可能考老师(或工作人员)的建议方案是什么(how),也可能考为什么会有这种建议(why)。作为考点,往往出现在对话的中间部分“讨论问题”,有时也出现在对话的结尾“解决问题”。

C.对话一方的观点(或态度)

这里,往往会涉及对话双方的就某一个问题的具体观点或态度是什么(what),以及为什么会有这样的观点或态度(why)。作为考点,经常出现在对话中间部分“讨论问题”。

下面我们就根据这一框架,用一套 TPO 题目(TPO 39 里的一段对话 ),来看一下考点的分布与特点。


1 提出问题

一般在对话开始的30秒里,学生就会提出一个问题。接下来的对话都会围绕着它展开。

大多数情况下,在对话的前三个来回里,大家就能发现讨论的问题是什么。但有少量的题目,开头的谈话,学生并没有马上提出问题,只是在聊问题的背景。比如本篇


Student: Hi, Professor Johns.
Professor: Hey, didn't I see you at the performance of Crimes of the Heart last night?

Student: Yeah. Actually my roommate had a small part in it.
Professor: Really? I was impressed with the performance.
There sure are some talented people here.
What did you think?

Student:You know, Beth Henley is an okay playwright.
She has written some decent stuff, but it was a little too traditional, a little too ordinary, especially considering the research I'm doing.
Professor: Oh, what's that?

Student: On the Polish theater director Jerzy Grotowski.
Professor: Grotowski. Yeah, that's a little out of the mainstream.
Pretty experimental.

Student: That's what I wanted to talk to you about.I had a question about our essay and presentation.
Professor: Okay.

前面的对话是铺垫,引出了关于戏剧方面的讨论(但其实这里也有一个考点,我们在第四部分细说)。一直到第五次对话,学生才表示要提出问题了(I had a question about our essay and presentation.)。

Student: Yeah. Some of these ideas, uh, Grotowski's ideas are really hard to understand. They are very abstract, philosophical. And, well, I thought the class would get more out of it if I acted out some of it to demonstrate.


Professor: Interesting idea.And what happens to the essay?

开始引出主题,学生对Grotowski的戏剧理解有些吃力。他认为如果能把戏剧演出来会更好。

这里也就成为了第1题的考点,考了学生的问题是什么(what)(第一题的题干是 What are the speakers mainly discussing?)


2 讨论问题

Student: Well, I will do the best I can with that, but supplement it with a performance. You know, bring it to life.
Professor: Alright. But what exactly are we talking about here? Grotowski, as I’m sure you know, had several phases in his career.

Student: I'm mainly interested in his idea from the late 1960's poor theater.You know, a reaction against a lot of props, light, fancy costumes, and all that. So it would be good for the classroom.I wouldn't need anything special.
Professor: Yes. I'm sure a lot of your classmates are unfamiliar with Grotowski.This would be good for them.

Student: Right. And this leads...I think there's overlap between his poor theater phase and another phase of his, when he was concerned with the relationship between performers and the audience. I also want to read more and write about that.
Professor: You know, I saw a performance several years ago.It really threw me for a loop.You know, you are used to just watching a play, sitting back, but this performance, borrowing Grotowski's principles, was really confrontational, a little uncomfortable.The actors looked right in our eyes, even moved us around, involved us in the action.

这里,老师先把谈话拉回了到了论文,然后学生又开始展开,讨论起Grotowski的职业生涯,他的舞台剧特色。然后又深入谈了道具很简单,演员和观众的关系也和传统的演出不同。这里越聊越细节。

这里出了第3题(What are two characteristics of Grotowski`s theater that the speakers mention?)。考的是Grotowski演出的特点(what)。这还是一道双选题,答案一个是道具,另一个就是演员和观众的关系。

还出了第4题(
Why does the professor mention a play she attended several years ago?)教授说起在演出中,演员会和观众产生交流,这样会让观众融入演出中。考的是老师态度的原因(why)


3 解决问题


Student: Yeah. I hope I can do the same when I perform for the class. I’m a bit worried since the acting is so physical.That there's so much physical preparation involved.
Professor: Well, some actors spend their whole lives working on this, so don't expect to get very far in a few weeks, but I'm sure you can bring a couple of points across.And if you need some extra class time, let me know.

学生怕表演起来很难,教授安慰说很多演员其实用一生来练习这种表演,不需要基于求成。

可以发现,关于演出与否的话题,学生特别纠结。然后老师给了建议,不要担心时间,有需要延期的话,告诉他就好。学生的问题得到了解决。这种地方几乎一定是考点。出现了第5题(What does the professor imply about the acting the student wants to do?)。答案是学生其实无法短期内精通这种表演。

Student: No. I think I can fit it into the regular time for the presentation
Professor: Okay. I think this will provide for some good discussion about these ideas and other aspects of the audience and their relationship to theatrical productions.

4.其他细节(位置可能灵活,不固定)

还有的时候,一些文章的细节可能出现在比较开头或结尾的地方,甚至出现在主旨题之前。这份材料里就有这样的考点。

Student:You know, Beth Henley is an okay playwright.
She has written some decent stuff, but it was a little too traditional, a little too ordinary, especially considering the research I'm doing.
Professor: Oh, what's that?

Student: On the Polish theater director Jerzy Grotowski.
Professor: Grotowski. Yeah, that's a little out of the mainstream.
Pretty experimental.

Student: That's what I wanted to talk to you about.I had a question about our essay and presentation.
Professor: Okay.


教授问学生对演出的感觉如何,学生回答还行,希望能做更多的研究。这里考了第2题(What does the student imply when he talks about the play he recently attended?
其实是对一个具体事物的看法是什么(what)。

小结


我们可以发现,考点出现的位置的确有一定的规律,在开头部分往往会考学生提出的问题。在展开的讨论问题部分,会考具体的细节,特别是观点。而在结尾,还会考老师(或工作人员)的建议。但是请注意两点:

1 题目考察的角度往往不同,有时会考察what,有时会考察why,还有些会考察how。
2 开头部分,由于学生并不一定马上提出问题,有时反而会考一些开头谈话中的细节。




















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