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[阅读小分队] 【Native Speaker每日训练计划】No.2786 科技

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发表于 5 天前 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
内容:Alice Ge 编辑:Alvin Wei

Wechat ID: NativeStudy  / Weibo: http://weibo.com/u/3476904471




Part I: Speaker

We're Being Tested
By Steve Mirsky on May 15, 2020
[Rephrase 1, 02:10]
Source: Scientific American
https://www.scientificamerican.com/podcast/episode/were-being-tested/


Part II: Speed



New data suggest people aren’t getting reinfected with the coronavirus
By Erin Garcia de Jesus | 14 HOURS AGO

[Time 2]
People who test positive again for the coronavirus, despite having already recovered from COVID-19, aren’t being reinfected, a new study finds.

Reports of patients discharged from hospitals in South Korea testing positive after their apparent recovery had raised concerns that people could get infected by the virus in the short term more than once or that the infection could come back. But diagnostic tests for the coronavirus that causes COVID-19 rely on detecting the virus’s genetic material (SN: 4/17/20). A positive result does not indicate whether a person is shedding viruses capable of infecting cells — which would signal an active infection.

Now, a May 19 report from the Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention shows that samples from “reinfected” patients don’t have infectious viruses. The finding hints that the diagnostic tests are picking up on the genetic material from noninfectious or dead viruses. That lack of infectious virus particles means these people aren’t currently infected and can’t transmit the coronavirus to others, the researchers say.

“It’s good news,” says Angela Rasmussen, a virologist at Columbia University. “It appears people are not being reinfected, and this virus is not reactivating.”
[191 words]

[Time 3]
In the study, researchers tried to isolate infectious coronaviruses from samples taken from 108 people who retested positive. All of those samples tested negative. When the scientists examined 23 of those patients for antibodies against the coronavirus, almost all had neutralizing antibodies that can stop the virus from getting into cells (SN: 4/28/20). That immune response may protect a person from getting reinfected, at least in the short term.

The team also tracked down 790 contacts of 285 people who retested positive. Of those contacts, 27 tested positive for the coronavirus. Twenty-four of those were cases that officials had previously confirmed. Officials also identified three new cases, all of whom either had contact with the Shincheonji religious group — which was hit particularly hard in the early days of the pandemic — or a confirmed case in their family. No new cases appeared to stem from repeat positive patients, a sign those patients aren’t contagious.

Now, “we can largely stop worrying about reinfection and address the next big questions,” Rasmussen says. “How protective are immune responses in recovered patients, and how long does immunity last?”
[183 words]

Source: Science News
https://www.sciencenews.org/article/coronavirus-covid19-reinfection-immune-response



Daily global CO2 emissions dropped dramatically as COVID-19 kept people home
By Carolyn Gramling | 20 HOURS AGO

[Time 4]
Stay-at-home orders haven’t just curbed the spread of COVID-19. They’ve briefly cleared the air.

Daily global carbon dioxide emissions dropped 17 percent, from about 100 million metric tons to about 83 million metric tons, in early April compared with average daily emissions in 2019, researchers report May 19 in Nature Climate Change. Among other changes, the lock-downs grounded planes, reduced traffic and changed peoples’ patterns of energy consumption (SN: 5/14/20).

Quantifying the impact of those changes on global CO2 emissions in real time is tricky; most emissions data are reported annually, not day by day or even month by month. So climate scientist Corinne Le Quéré of the University of East Anglia in Norwich, England, and colleagues used daily data such as electricity demand, city congestion and readouts from smart meters in homes to estimate emissions for 69 countries. Then, the researchers created a “confinement index” based on the stringency of government-imposed policies in different locations and over time.

During the most stringent confinement periods, when only essential workers were permitted to commute, daily aviation activity shrank by 75 percent, the team reports. Surface transportation was reduced by about 50 percent, while power use shrank by about 15 percent.

If the world returns to a pre-pandemic level of activity by mid-June, the researchers say, 2020’s emissions will be about 4 percent lower than in 2019. If some restrictions remain through the end of the year, 2020 emissions could be as much as 7 percent lower.

This COVID-19–related decline in emissions isn’t sustainable, and comes at a very high cost, says coauthor Rob Jackson, an environmental scientist at Stanford University. However, it highlights the depth of the cuts needed to reach emissions targets set by the 2015 Paris Agreement (SN: 11/26/19). To limit warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius by 2100, nations would need to reduce emissions by 7.6 percent each year over the next decade, scientists say.
[317 words]

Source: Science News
https://www.sciencenews.org/article/coronavirus-covid19-daily-co2-emissions



Physicists exploit a quantum rule to create a new kind of crystal
By Emily Conover | MAY 19, 2020 AT 6:00 AM

[Time 5]
Physicists have harnessed the aloofness of quantum particles to create a new type of crystal.

Some particles shun one another because they are forbidden to take on the same quantum state as their neighbors. Atoms can be so reluctant to overlap that they form a crystal-like arrangement even when they aren’t exerting any forces on one another, physicists report May 8 at arXiv.org. Called a Pauli crystal, the configuration is the result of a quantum mechanical rule called the Pauli exclusion principle.

Scientists had previously predicted the existence of Pauli crystals, but no one had observed them until now. “It just teaches us how beautiful physics is,” says quantum physicist Tilman Esslinger of ETH Zurich. The experiment reveals there are still new phenomena to be observed from a foundational principle taught in introductory physics classes. “If I wrote a textbook,” Esslinger says, “I would put that [experiment] in.”

Although the Pauli crystals themselves are based on known physics, the technique used to observe them could help scientists better understand certain mysterious states of matter, such as superconductors, materials that conduct electricity without resistance, or superfluids, which flow without friction.

Discovered by Austrian physicist Wolfgang Pauli in 1925, the Pauli exclusion principle forbids electrons within an atom from acquiring matching sets of quantum properties, such as energy and angular momentum (SN: 4/10/99). Physicists soon realized that the rule governs not only electrons but an entire class of particles called fermions, which in addition to electrons includes protons, neutrons and many types of atoms. As a result, fermions can repel one another without directly interacting. Whereas typical crystals form their regular arrangements thanks to electromagnetic interactions, a Pauli crystal forms only due to this repulsion.
[283 words]

[Time 6]
“It’s the most simple state of matter that you can imagine,” says Selim Jochim of Heidelberg University in Germany.

Jochim and colleagues created their Pauli crystal out of lithium atoms, corralled by lasers into a two-dimensional region about a micrometer in radius. The researchers put groups of three or six atoms in that trap at a time. The atoms were too close together to directly image their positions to reveal any crystal-like structure. Instead, the team measured the atoms’ momenta by watching where the particles traveled when released. After the experiment was repeated many times, the researchers found correlations, or patterns, in the atoms’ momenta.

Because position and momentum are closely related properties for these trapped particles, the relationship between the momenta also means that the atoms formed a regular spatial configuration akin to a crystal. Different flower-shaped configurations of the particles’ momenta arose depending on the number of particles in the trap.

“You can really see this pattern,” says Magdalena Załuska-Kotur of the Institute of Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences, part of a team of physicists that had previously predicted that such structures could be observed in this type of experiment.
[195 words]

Source: Science News
https://www.sciencenews.org/article/physicists-exploit-quantum-rule-create-new-pauli-crystal

Part III: Obstacle

Mindfulness training shows promise for people with MS
May 18, 2020 | Ohio State University

[Paraphrase 7]
New research suggests mindfulness training may help multiple sclerosis patients in two very different ways: regulating negative emotions and improving processing speed.

People with MS who underwent the four-week mindfulness training not only improved more compared to those who did nothing -- they also improved compared to those who tried another treatment, called adaptive cognitive training.

"This was a small pilot study, so we need to replicate the results, but these findings were very encouraging," said Ruchika Prakash, corresponding author of the research and associate professor of psychology at The Ohio State University.

"It is exciting to find a treatment that may be helpful in more than one way for people with multiple sclerosis."

The findings were published recently in two journal articles: primary results in Rehabilitation Psychology, and secondary analysis in Neuropsychology.

Multiple sclerosis is the most common neurological disease in young adults and is estimated to affect nearly 1 million people in the United States. It damages the central nervous system and can lead to a variety of physical, emotional and cognitive problems.

The study involved 61 people with MS who were placed in one of three groups: four-week mindfulness training, four-week adaptive cognitive training, or a waitlist control group that did nothing during the study period, but received treatment afterward.

Mindfulness-based training involves practicing paying attention to the present moment in a nonjudgmental and accepting manner, Prakash said. Among the practices in the sessions, participants learned how to focus on the breath and to do mental "body scans" to experience how their body was feeling.

In the primary analysis of the study, led by former doctoral student Brittney Schirda, the researchers wanted to find out if mindfulness training helped multiple sclerosis patients deal with a common component of the disease: problems regulating their emotions.

"Studies suggest that 30 to 50 percent of MS patients experience some form of psychiatric disorder," Prakash said. "Anything we can do to help them cope is important for their quality of life."

Study participants completed a measure of emotional regulation at the beginning and end of the study. They were asked how much they agreed with questions like "When I'm upset, I lose control over my behavior" and "I experience my emotions as overwhelming and out of control."

Results showed that people in the mindfulness training group reported they were more able to manage their emotions at the end of the study when compared to those in the other two groups.

This included the group that received adaptive cognitive training (ACT), which has shown promise for MS patients in other studies. This ACT program used computerized games to help MS patients overcome some of their cognitive deficits that make everyday functioning more difficult, such as problems with paying attention, switching focus, and planning and organizing.

"Our results provide promising evidence that mindfulness training can help MS patients deal with their emotions in a more constructive and positive way," Prakash said.

In a secondary analysis of the same study, led by doctoral student Heena Manglani, participants were assessed on their processing speed and working memory, two cognitive functions that often decline in MS patients. They also completed additional measures of cognitive functioning.

Processing speed is the time it takes a person to complete mental tasks and is related to how well they can understand and react to the information they receive.

Findings showed that after four weeks of mindfulness training, MS patients showed significantly improved processing speed based on the tests used in the study -- more so than those in the other two groups.

"This is an exciting finding because processing speed is a core cognitive domain impacted in multiple sclerosis," Prakash said.

"We were somewhat surprised that this training intervention that we thought would mostly impact emotion regulation also enhanced processing speed."

Gains in working memory were similar in all three groups and there were no mindfulness-specific changes in other measures of cognitive functioning.

One of the reasons that mindfulness training is so promising is because it is an easily accessible treatment for all patients.

"Anyone can use mindfulness -- even individuals with limited mobility, who often find other training techniques, like exercise training, to be more challenging," Prakash said.

Prakash and her team are now working on replicating this pilot study with a larger sample.
[715 words]

Source: Science Daily
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/05/200518144912.htm

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发表于 5 天前 | 显示全部楼层
Prevail: to get control or influence 2, to be common among a group of people or area at a particular time
Eg.I am sure commen sense will prevail in the end

New data suggest people aren’t getting reinfected with coronavirus
[Time2]1’32
[Time3]0’57
It is concerning whether those people recover from coronavirus could get reinfected. However, researchers found that though these people may test positive again for the coronavirus after they have recovered from covid-19 because diagnostic tests for covid-19 rely on detecting the virus’ genetic material which involves noninfectious or dead viruses, they are actually not being reinfected. It suggests that people aren’t getting reinfected with the coronavirus. Rasmmssen, a virologist at Columbia University , said that now next step is to confirm how protective immune responses are in recovered patients and how long immunity lasts.

Shedding viruses 病毒携带者
A positive result does not indicate whether a person is shedding viruses capable of infecting cells- which would signal an active infection

Daily global CO2 emissions dropped dramatically as COVID-19 kept people home
[Time4] 1’43

Curb:控制
Stringent: severe
Stay-at-home orders haven’t just curbed the spread of COVID-19. They’ve briefly cleared the air.

Mindfulness training shows promise for people with MS
[Obstacle]7’46
Multiple sclerosis, which could damage the central nervous system and lead to a variety of physical, emotional and cognitive problems,  is a common neurological diseases among young adults. By doing a series of comparative experiments, researchers found that multiple sclerosis patients who adopt mindfulness training improved including regulating negative emotions and processing speed in contrast with those who did nothing and those in the adaptive cognitive training group. It means that mindfulness training plays a positive role in treating multiple sclerosis. Another advantage of mindfulness training is that it is easily available to all patients.

Sclerosis: a medical condition which causes body tissue or organs to become harder, especially the arteries  /sklɪə'rəʊsɪs/
Undergo the four-week mindfulness training
It is an easily accessible treatment for all patients

发表于 5 天前 | 显示全部楼层
May 23rd
T2  01'38  [191]
T3  01'48  [183]
A new research suggests that people aren’t getting reinfected with the coronavirus
T4  02'34  [317]
The block policy during COVID- reduced the CO2 emissions
T5  02'53  [283]
T6  01'38  [195]
发表于 5 天前 | 显示全部楼层
[Time 2]        1‘05
[Time 3]        1‘00
[Time 4]        1‘40
[Time 5]        2‘12
[Time 6]        1‘01
[Paraphrase 7]                3‘45
发表于 5 天前 | 显示全部楼层
T2 (1'35'')  refection  再感染
T3(1'29'')
T4 (3'35'')  curb 抑制,控制  tricky 棘手的 难办的   commute 改变为... 减轻(刑法)
T5(2'26'') angular 角的,瘦骨嶙峋的  aloofness 疏远
T6(1'33')
Obstacle (5'42'' )domain 领地,范围   mindfulness 注意,留神
发表于 5 天前 | 显示全部楼层
time 2: 1'09"
time 3: 49"
time 4: 1'50"
time 5: 1'47"
time 6: 1'19"
OB: 3'58"
发表于 5 天前 | 显示全部楼层
[58’][191 words] People who are tested positive for Covid-19 secondly aren’t really infected
[1:06][183 words] A brief introduction about the research, to make it more convincing
[1:40][317 words] Stay-at-home not only cut down the spread of Covid-19, but also reduce the air pollution
[1:45][283 words] Some knowledge about particle
[1:02][195 words] a experiment to test the momenta of atoms
[3:21][715 words] Mindfulness training is useful for MS patients comparing to ACD, to both control their emotions and improve the processing speed, proved in two experiments practically. MS is an most common disease, which can contribute to nervous system damage and emotional problems. Mindfulness training is a widely useful method as well.
发表于 5 天前 | 显示全部楼层
T2 [1’12”]
Through the diagnostics, scientists found that the recovered coronavirus patients will not be infected again and will not spread the virus to others.

T3 [1‘01“]
The lab experiment validated the conclusion.

T4 [2’29”]
The stay-at-home order, released during this pandemic, decreased the CO2 emission by 17 percent because the airlines shrank, the road traffic declined, and people’s energy consumption habits changed. However, this phenomenon will not last long, and it costs too much.

T5 [2’38”]
P- crystal cannot be observed but the understanding of it is important to physics. The rule called f- found by physicians can help people understand p- in a further step.

T6 [1’12”]
The researchers created p- crystal with -atoms. This atom is close with [the formation of configuration].
发表于 5 天前 | 显示全部楼层
People who test positive again for the coronavirus, despite having already recovered from COVID-19, aren’t being reinfected, a new study finds.
02:13

When the scientists examined 23 of those patients for antibodies against the coronavirus, almost all had neutralizing antibodies that can stop the virus from getting into cells
01:16
Daily global carbon dioxide emissions dropped 17 percent, from about 100 million metric tons to about 83 million metric tons, in early April compared with average daily emissions in 2019
02:23
Physicists have harnessed the aloofness of quantum particles to create a new type of crystal.
02:17

It’s the most simple state of matter that you can imagine. Because position and momentum are closely related properties for these trapped particles, the relationship between the momenta also means that the atoms formed a regular spatial configuration akin to a crystal
02:37
发表于 5 天前 发自手机 Web 版 | 显示全部楼层
OB 5:32
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