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[阅读小分队] 【Native Speaker每日训练计划】No.2765 科技

发表于 2020-5-8 22:04:01 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
内容:Alice Ge 编辑:Alvin Wei

Wechat ID: NativeStudy  / Weibo:

Part I: Speaker

Horses Recognize Pics of Their Keepers
By Susanne Bard on May 5, 2020
[Rephrase 1, 03:01]
Source: Scientific American

Part II: Speed

A simple exercise on belonging helps black college students years later
By Sujata Gupta | MAY 5, 2020 AT 10:00 AM

[Time 2]
A simple, one-hour exercise that helps black students feel like they belong in college can pay off. Even a decade later, students who took the training reported higher levels of personal and professional satisfaction than their peers.

The findings, reported April 29 in Science Advances, indicate that benefits from a “social-belonging” intervention endure, says Christopher Rozek, an education researcher at Stanford University who was not involved with this study. Though the study is small, involving a few dozen graduate students from a single university, Rozek says the findings are exciting. “It is the first really long-term follow-up with this sort of intervention.”

Black students entering college, who are aware of negative racial stereotypes and are underrepresented in higher education, can experience uncertainty about belonging, says study coauthor Shannon Brady, a social psychologist at Wake Forest University in Winston-Salem, N.C. That uncertainty can cause some black students to see commonplace challenges — a bad grade or a spat with a friend — as a confirmation of those negative feelings. Consequently, such students become less likely to seek help when needed, which can hurt their academic performance and overall well-being. Social-belonging interventions aim to break that negative loop.

In the early to mid-2000s, researchers recruited 92 college freshmen – split almost evenly between black and white students — at a selective East Coast university. Forty-three students in one group read partially fictionalized vignettes from a diverse group of upperclassmen describing how their sense of belonging at school increased over time. The upperclassmen emphasized their efforts to reach out to professors and classmates for help. Participants then wrote an essay reflecting on their own experiences. The 49 students in the control group also read vignettes and wrote an essay, but learned about how upperclassmen adjusted to physical challenges, such as navigating campus and bad weather.
[298 words]

[Time 3]
The first indication that the intervention helped longer term came at graduation: Black students in the intervention group had higher grade point averages than black students in the control group, the researchers reported in 2011. And these students had halved the racial achievement gap in GPA between white and black students in the study. In an earlier pilot project, the researchers had also shown that black students who received the intervention became more likely to attend office hours and e-mail professors for help. The intervention did not affect outcomes for white students.

Now, Brady and colleagues show black students in the intervention group continued to see benefits after graduation. The researchers tracked down 80 of the original 92 participants. In an online survey, respondents, average age 27, were asked to rate their potential to succeed in the future relative to other students in their graduating class. Black participants in the intervention group rated their potential to succeed as the same or above 69 percent of their peers; blacks in the control group said they expected to do better than 53 percent. Those in the intervention also rated their life satisfaction one point higher on average on a seven-point scale.

And almost 70 percent of black participants who received the intervention reported holding a community leadership position — a sign of a continued sense of belonging — compared with 35 percent of black participants in the control group.

These differences could not be explained by the intervention group’s higher grades, or even directly by the original one-hour exercise itself, as few participants recalled it. Instead, the researchers found a statistical link between those successes and securing a mentor in college: Eighty-four percent of black students in the intervention group had such a relationship; only 43 percent of black students in the control group did.
[301 words]

[The Rest]
The initial intervention appears to have triggered a snowball effect. “Having that different lens on the world leads you to take different actions and very likely end up with a different [life] experience,” Brady says.   

Looking ahead to next fall, the ongoing coronavirus pandemic could make it harder for marginalized students to find their footing, especially if classes are offered remotely, Brady says. In previous work, though, she and colleagues showed that social-belonging interventions can be delivered online with positive, though slightly weaker, results in students’ first year of college. More than 50 colleges and universities use an online version of the program.

Even if classes are taught online, colleges can still facilitate virtual relationships between students and faculty, Brady says. “These relationships seem to be really, really important.”
[129 words]

Source: Science News

Warming water can create a tropical ecosystem, but a fragile one
By Jake Buehler | 6 HOURS AGO

[Time 4]
A decade ago, the waters off the Otomi Peninsula in the Sea of Japan, were a tepid haven. Schools of sapphire damselfish flitted above herds of long-spined urchins. The site was a hot spot of tropical biodiversity far from the equator, thanks to warm water exhaust from a nearby nuclear power plant. But when the plant ceased operations in 2012, those tropical species vanished.

After the plant shut down, Otomi’s average bottom temperature fell by 3 degrees Celsius, and the site lost most of its tropical fishes, fisheries scientist Reiji Masuda of Kyoto University reports May 6 in PLOS ONE. The die-off of tropical fishes and invertebrates was “striking,” he says. Otomi quickly reverted to a cool-water ecosystem.

The life and death of the reef is providing a sneak peek into the future of temperate habitats under climate change. This research suggests that even modest warming can result in dramatic changes to cool-water reefs, with some temperate habitats converting to more tropical ones. But these emerging reefs may not match the diversity or health of other more established tropical reefs at first, leaving them as ecologically fragile as the Otomi reef proved to be.

While some temperate reefs are changing rapidly with global warming, they aren’t exact transplants of more established tropical ecosystems, says David Booth, a marine ecologist at the University of Technology Sydney not involved in the new study. Booth studies increasingly tropical Australian reefs.

“People always ask us, ‘Oh, that means even though the Barrier Reef’s in trouble with bleaching, in a couple of years Sydney will be the new Barrier Reef?’” Booth says. Sydney is merely acquiring a handful of tropical fish and coral, he says, “so, it ain’t the Barrier Reef by any means. Just a coral community starting, that’s all.”
[297 words]

[Time 5]
Rapid die-off
In October 2003, while studying groupers at Otomi, Masuda noticed lots of tropical fishes that seemed out of place. Parts of southern Japan host tropical reefs, but Otomi sits at about 35° N, a zone typically occupied by seaweeds and associated fishes. The source of this anomaly was the Takahama nuclear power plant, only 2 kilometers away, which released warm water into the ocean after using it to cool reactors.

In 2004, Masuda began surveying Otomi and two other nearby sites, cataloging and counting fish. Then the Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami struck in 2011, precipitating the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. Japan stopped running all of its nuclear plants in response, including Takahama in 2012. As the warm discharge ceased, Otomi became an impromptu natural experiment in resiliency (SN: 12/5/14), and Masuda kept collecting data for the next five years.

Soon, he started seeing dead and dying fish everywhere. “In normal marine environments, we scarcely see a dead fish,” says Masuda, since fish usually die by being eaten. But around Otomi, fish were succumbing en masse to the cold temperatures instead.

Masuda was also surprised at how quickly Otomi shifted back to a temperate ecosystem. “Only two months after the die-out of tropical, poisonous sea urchins, temperate sea urchins appeared,” he says. “The sargassum seaweed bed recovered with some temperate fishes such as common wrasse and rockfish.”
[228 words]

[Time 6]
Sneak peek
Otomi may provide a preview of some of the changes temperate reefs could experience as the global climate warms. After decades of warm water, Otomi still had no shelter-providing corals or large, tropical predators.

That lack of predators may have been behind Otomi’s high densities of tropical urchins, which had stripped the seabed clear of algae, obliterating access to food and shelter for many other species. There was nothing “to control their number and thus to maintain a healthy ecosystem,” he says.

Masuda thinks it’s possible the die-offs were so severe and abrupt because of this poor ecosystem health. With species diversity lower than other tropical systems, the lack of redundancy can make the whole ecosystem more susceptible to stressors. In this case, that stress was a drop in temperature.

If there were many different species of urchin in the tropicalized reef, there’d be a higher chance that some could tolerate lower temperatures, Masuda points out. “This applies to fishes, too,” he says. “In healthy tropical ecosystems, there are many species — some should be relatively robust to temperature changes.”

Elsewhere in Japan, warming seas have already led to complete ecosystem shifts from kelp forests to coral, upending fisheries, Booth notes.

As for Otomi, it may get another chance to be a natural experiment. In May 2017, the Takahama nuclear reactor turned back on, and Masuda has been diving and collecting data on the return of tropical fishes and urchins as the waters warm. Analyzing this much slower change, he says, “will be another fish to fry.”
[258 words]

Source: Science News

Part III: Obstacle

ESO instrument finds closest black hole to Earth
May 6, 2020 | ESO

[Paraphrase 7]
A team of astronomers from the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and other institutes has discovered a black hole lying just 1000 light-years from Earth. The black hole is closer to our Solar System than any other found to date and forms part of a triple system that can be seen with the naked eye. The team found evidence for the invisible object by tracking its two companion stars using the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile. They say this system could just be the tip of the iceberg, as many more similar black holes could be found in the future.

"We were totally surprised when we realised that this is the first stellar system with a black hole that can be seen with the unaided eye," says Petr Hadrava, Emeritus Scientist at the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic in Prague and co-author of the research. Located in the constellation of Telescopium, the system is so close to us that its stars can be viewed from the southern hemisphere on a dark, clear night without binoculars or a telescope. "This system contains the nearest black hole to Earth that we know of," says ESO scientist Thomas Rivinius, who led the study published today in Astronomy & Astrophysics.

The team originally observed the system, called HR 6819, as part of a study of double-star systems. However, as they analysed their observations, they were stunned when they revealed a third, previously undiscovered body in HR 6819: a black hole. The observations with the FEROS spectrograph on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at La Silla showed that one of the two visible stars orbits an unseen object every 40 days, while the second star is at a large distance from this inner pair.

Dietrich Baade, Emeritus Astronomer at ESO in Garching and co-author of the study, says: "The observations needed to determine the period of 40 days had to be spread over several months. This was only possible thanks to ESO's pioneering service-observing scheme under which observations are made by ESO staff on behalf of the scientists needing them."

The hidden black hole in HR 6819 is one of the very first stellar-mass black holes found that do not interact violently with their environment and, therefore, appear truly black. But the team could spot its presence and calculate its mass by studying the orbit of the star in the inner pair. "An invisible object with a mass at least 4 times that of the Sun can only be a black hole," concludes Rivinius, who is based in Chile.

Astronomers have spotted only a couple of dozen black holes in our galaxy to date, nearly all of which strongly interact with their environment and make their presence known by releasing powerful X-rays in this interaction. But scientists estimate that, over the Milky Way's lifetime, many more stars collapsed into black holes as they ended their lives. The discovery of a silent, invisible black hole in HR 6819 provides clues about where the many hidden black holes in the Milky Way might be. "There must be hundreds of millions of black holes out there, but we know about only very few. Knowing what to look for should put us in a better position to find them," says Rivinius. Baade adds that finding a black hole in a triple system so close by indicates that we are seeing just "the tip of an exciting iceberg."

Already, astronomers believe their discovery could shine some light on a second system. "We realised that another system, called LB-1, may also be such a triple, though we'd need more observations to say for sure," says Marianne Heida, a postdoctoral fellow at ESO and co-author of the paper. "LB-1 is a bit further away from Earth but still pretty close in astronomical terms, so that means that probably many more of these systems exist. By finding and studying them we can learn a lot about the formation and evolution of those rare stars that begin their lives with more than about 8 times the mass of the Sun and end them in a supernova explosion that leaves behind a black hole."

The discoveries of these triple systems with an inner pair and a distant star could also provide clues about the violent cosmic mergers that release gravitational waves powerful enough to be detected on Earth. Some astronomers believe that the mergers can happen in systems with a similar configuration to HR 6819 or LB-1, but where the inner pair is made up of two black holes or of a black hole and a neutron star. The distant outer object can gravitationally impact the inner pair in such a way that it triggers a merger and the release of gravitational waves. Although HR 6819 and LB-1 have only one black hole and no neutron stars, these systems could help scientists understand how stellar collisions can happen in triple star systems.
[822 words]

Source: Science Daily


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发表于 2020-5-8 22:40:10 发自手机 Web 版 | 显示全部楼层
T2 1:30
T3 1:29
TR 0:50
T4 1:01
T5 1:18
T6 1:36
OB 8:55
发表于 2020-5-9 00:40:52 发自手机 Web 版 | 显示全部楼层
Obstacle: 3”35 [822]
发表于 2020-5-9 02:13:07 | 显示全部楼层
发表于 2020-5-9 06:35:29 | 显示全部楼层

T2 2:02
T3 1:36
TR 0:45
T4 1:40
T5 1:28
T6 1:33
OB 4:11
发表于 2020-5-9 08:57:54 | 显示全部楼层
The reaseachers do the survey about black students performance in school.
emphasis the importance of social-belonging intervention.

pay off
intervention 干预
racial 种族的(religion宗教)
commonplace 平凡的
spat 争吵
fictionalize 把…小说化
vignette 简介

Compare with black students who in the control group,black students in
the intervention would more easily  success and play the role in holding the \
community leadership position.+life satifaction

mentor 导师

The rest[58'']
because of the flu, the intervention relationship will become hard to build.
they tend to keep doing through the online-teaching.

pandemic 传染性的


tepid 温热的
sapphire 天蓝色的
damselfish 小热带鱼
urchin 流浪儿
exhaust 耗尽
invertebrate 无脊椎的
sneak 突然的
bleach 漂白,脱色

marine animals rapid die off

precipitate 使…突然降临
impromptu 临时的
resiliency 弹性,恢复能力
sargassum 海藻
wrasse 某鱼
rockfish 石斑鱼

algae 海藻
obliterate 覆盖,消除
susceptible 敏感的
发表于 2020-5-9 09:55:02 | 显示全部楼层
A simple exercise can help students feel like they belong in college can pay off, and the findings also indicates that the students can benefit from a “social-belonging” intervention endure.
The researchers did a research and the indication is that the intervention helped longer term came at graduation and there is a statistical link between those successes and securing a mentor.
There is a hot spot site of tropical biodiversity far from the equator and when the temperature habitats change the life and death of the reef also change .
The studying groupers noticed lots of tropical fishes seemed out of place and he found that the dead fish everywhere, he surprised that how quickly Otomi shifted back to a temperate zone.
After decades of warm water, Otomi still had no predators, and because of this the high densities of Otomi occurs .As for the Otomi, it may get another chance to be a natural experiment.
Redundancy 冗余, 裁员;人浮于事
发表于 2020-5-9 11:01:17 | 显示全部楼层
T2 [298 words] 1'48
T3 [301 words] 1'37
T4 [297 words] 1'44
T5 [228 words] 1'11
T6 [258 words] 1'50
OB [822 words] 5'39
Scientist find the nearest blackhole lately. And it is the first blackhole they found that do not interact with the environment of the planet around it. This research shine some light on other system and it can help scientist to identify more blackholes in the future.
发表于 2020-5-9 11:07:21 | 显示全部楼层
OB 07:01
Scientists have discovered a black hole which is the closest to solar system, existing in a triple sysetem. However, they said this finding is only the tip pf an iceberg. They have discovered the first stellar system with a black hole which is so big that it can be seen with the unaided eye.
The discovery of this black hole is actually an accidental finding, in which scientists are studying a double-star system.
Emeritus Astronomer at ESO thought highly of this discovery, saying their service-observing scheme accelerate the observation of the universe.
1.Found a truly black hole, which is the first stellar-mass black holes found that do not interact violently with their environment, unlike  their recently discovered counterparts.
2.Helped to study other systems.
3.Provided clues about the violent cosmic mergers that release gravitational waves powerful enough to be detected on Earth. These systems could help scientists understand how stellar collisions can happen in triple star systems.
发表于 2020-5-9 12:04:28 | 显示全部楼层
[Time 2]        1‘56
[Time 3]        1‘28
[The Rest]        0‘33
[Time 4]        1‘57
[Time 5]        1‘11
[Time 6]        1‘17
[Paraphrase 7]                5‘01
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