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[阅读小分队] 【Native Speaker每日训练计划—98系列】【98-02】文史哲

发表于 2017-12-6 20:02:41 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
内容:Joanne Han  编辑:Daniel Rong

Wechat ID: NativeStudy  / Weibo: http://weibo.com/u/3476904471

Part I: Speaker

Why school should start later for teens

Teens don't get enough sleep, and it's not because of Snapchat, social lives or hormones -- it's because of public policy, says Wendy Troxel. Drawing from her experience as a sleep researcher, clinician and mother of a teenager, Troxel discusses how early school start times deprive adolescents of sleep during the time of their lives when they need it most.

Source: TED

[Rephrase 1, 10:32]

Part II: Speed

Sexual Harassers Probably Aren’t the Old Men You Imagine They Are
By Rebecca Gale | Dec 5, 2017

[Time 2]
Alicia thought she was just being friendly. She’d stopped by the desk of another co-worker at the startup she worked at—an “oddball.” She’d thought to say hello and get to know him. He was a subject expert she needed to interview as part of her job.

But soon, the “oddball” started stopping by her desk often, suggesting they go to Paris together, making romantically suggestive comments, and inviting her to lunch, even though Alicia repeatedly turned down his invitations. “I figured I could ignore it,” she said. But then he started sending her sexually explicit poems, followed later by apologies over Gchat.

“He knew it was inappropriate,” said Alicia, who asked that her last name not be used for the story. She knew she should probably report him, but she didn’t. “I remember thinking, I don’t want to be the person that has to teach him a lesson.” She was new, she wanted to be liked, she worked predominantly with guys, and she wasn’t sure that sexually explicit poems rose to the level of harassment. This guy wasn’t a superior, and he wasn’t in a position of power over her or her career. He was no Matt Lauer or Harvey Weinstein. He was only a few years older than she was, somewhere in his mid-30s.

Though we simply don’t have big data on who harrasses most, a new online survey from Fairygodboss, a website offering job and company reviews directed at women, found that it’s not just the men in positions of power who harass women but oftentimes younger men who are colleagues and not bosses or supervisors.

From a pool of its members, Fairygodboss surveyed over 500 women employed in a variety of different industries and job types and found that nearly 43 percent of the women who responded have experienced harassment at work, and over 70 percent of those they describe as their perpetrators are reported to be 40 or younger. Only 7 percent of harassers were over the age of 60.

The survey also found that the women who reported being harassed were more likely to experience harassment from a colleague rather than a direct boss or management, and about 50 percent of women said they did not report the harassment when it occurred because they did not want to be perceived as a “troublemaker.”
[389 words]

[Time 3]
The results were surprising, said Mary Pharris, director of business development and partnerships at Fairygodboss, both in that the harassers were colleagues, not bosses, and younger. “Perhaps it’s because of the narrative you’re seeing play out in the media, particularly among older men who occupy positions of power,” said Pharris. “It creates the perception that harassers would be older, and their direct bosses.”

These findings suggest it is not simply a generational problem that we should expect to decline as baby boomers retire. “Harassment isn’t exclusive to one age bracket or where you rank in a company. I think it just means that harassment can be more pervasive than some of us originally thought,” said Pharris.

“We know sexual harassment does happen to all generations, and it does happen a lot with colleagues as well,” said Brenda Russell, a professor of applied psychology at Pennsylvania State University at Berks who studies tolerance of harassment.

And despite the hopes of many that the #MeToo moment reflects a changing of the guard and a last gasp of the gender dynamics that were permitted in the workplaces of yesterday, there’s good reason to think our culture is producing future harassers even before they start their professional lives.

Vanessa Grigoriadis, author of Blurred Lines: Rethinking Sex, Power, and Consent on Campus, believes that the American college campus has become a breeding ground for the misogyny that runs rampant in certain workplace cultures. A lot has been said about the high rates of sexual assault on campuses, but this trend reflects a more general culture of misogyny and toxic masculinity in college life.

“We don’t know exactly what leads some men to harass or assault,” said Grigoriadis in an interview with Slate. But two of the factors, Grigoriadis said, are the feeling of entitlement and misogyny. And colleges, specifically the four-year residential colleges attended by many affluent Americans, are perpetuating this culture.
[317 words]

[Time 4]
Universities, said Grigoriadis, have become nervous about litigation around drinking, and binge drinking numbers have been high, so they feel “legally covered” if students go off campus to drink in fraternity houses rather than dorm rooms. “Fraternities control the social scene in colleges,” she said, with misogynistic themed parties such as “pimps and hos,” where women are encouraged to show up in scantily clad attire for heavy drinking in an unsupervised environment.
“It’s not a surprise that kids who come out of normal American pop culture and this skewed college system that reinforces these beliefs—they get to professional life, and they don’t know where the normal boundaries are,” said Grigoriadis.

Age may also be a factor in how women react to sexual harassment. Russell points to research from the ’90s that shows younger and older women were both less tolerant of sexual harassment by men, but current research shows that it’s younger women who are more tolerant than the older women. “[The older women] have more job security, experience, and confidence. They may be in supervisory experience. It’s hard to look at age. There is so much more with regard to sexism, confidence, and maturity that plays a role that we have to statistically try and control for to get to specific generational differences. That is why there is not a lot of research on the topic,” said Russell.

Proposals to institute mandatory sexual harassment training, like the program the U.S. Congress has implemented in the wake of allegations of leniency, show that workplace cultural change is possible. Colleges are encouraging more affirmative-consent practices, replacing the no means no slogan with yes means yes, and Grigoriadis believes such affirmative-consent practices could be good in the workplace too. “We know that guys aren’t always the greatest at reading signals,” she said. And when there’s a culture of fear, women aren’t always great at speaking up.

The Fairygodboss report included suggestions for fixing the problems too, including encouraging women to speak up, instituting protections for those who do, and creating the option for anonymous reporting. Nearly half the women polled also thought the increased media attention on sexual harassers would help reduce the number of future incidents.

Grigoriadis agrees. “Things like what is happening right now are going to be what is making a difference: speaking out, bringing it into the light. This boldness has gotten a lot of guys’ attentions.” Whether men are finally understanding why harassment is wrong or they’re just newly afraid of the repercussions is a different question. “Whether they are afraid or empathetic people, I don’t know, but it’s got their attention. That is for sure.”
[440 words]

Source: The Slate

Why Garrison Keillor’s Fall From Grace Feels Particularly Queasy-Making
By Ruth Graham | Nov 30, 2017

[Time 5]
On Wednesday, Minnesota Public Radio announced it was severing all ties to Garrison Keillor, citing allegations of “inappropriate behavior” toward a co-worker when he was producing the show. The station will stop distributing old episodes of “A Prairie Home Companion” featuring Keillor, who retired from hosting duties a year ago. And it will rename his show, which is now fronted by bluegrass musician Chris Thile. American Public Media, MPR’s parent organization, will end distribution and broadcast of “The Writer’s Almanac,” a short daily spot featuring poetry and literary tidbits. Within a day, Keillor’s decades-long radio career has been effectively scrubbed from the public square.

The details of what prompted the dramatic announcement remain murky, and Keillor’s own statements have only added to the confusion. “I put my hand on a woman’s bare back,” he told the Minneapolis Star Tribune. “I meant to pat her back after she told me about her unhappiness and her shirt was open and my hand went up it about six inches. She recoiled. I apologized. I sent her an email of apology later and she replied that she had forgiven me and not to think about it. We were friends. We continued to be friendly right up until her lawyer called.” In a later statement, Keillor referred to “the two employees who made the allegations.” More information is forthcoming, presumably.

Keillor’s cultural brand makes these allegations particularly painful for many to reckon with (including lifelong Keillor fans like me). He started his career as a writer, and then launched the two-hour public radio program “A Prairie Home Companion” in the mid-1970s. He devised it as an old-fashioned variety show, featuring live music, comedic skits with a roster of talented voice actors, and fake ads for ketchup and biscuits and English degrees. His tastes ran dad-ish; he liked poetry and jokes and parody songs.

The culmination of each show, taped in front of a live audience, was monologue in the form of dispatches from a fictional town in Minnesota. Keillor occupied Lake Wobegon for decades on the radio and in a series of popular books. Over the years, he embroidered multiple generations of families, local traditions, and small businesses. Children were born, grew up, and left town; the Lutheran church was on its third pastor by the time Keillor left the radio stage. “It was a quiet week in Lake Wobegon,” Keillor would announce each week, pausing as the audience burst into applause. Lake Wobegon was a feat of world-building, as impressively textured as any science-fiction series.
[421 words]

[Time 6]
But there were always reasons to suspect that Keillor’s folksy persona wasn’t a true portrait of the man: the unseemly lawsuit against his neighbor, the messy personal life. In interviews, he often comes off as aloof and awkward. A profile last year in the New York Times ended with the radio host breezing past the reporter after a show without acknowledging her, or even seeming to recognize her. “He is certainly the strangest person I know,” the writer Roger Angell, his one-time editor, said in that piece. “I don’t think he’s necessarily a happy man.”

Even before this week, it has never been terribly hard to come up with reasons to complain about Keillor: his heavy sighing directly into the microphone, his uneven singing voice, his promotion of casserole-bland culture. He’s the epitome of “a white, male, liberal, literary Midwesterner,” as one exasperated critic put it. Underneath his steadfast liberalism, though, was a fundamentally conservative streak. In a notorious 2007 column for Salon, he kvetched that gay marriage would be annoyingly complicated, producing “a whole new string of hyphenated relatives…Bruce and Kevin’s in-laws and Bruce’s ex, Mark, and Mark’s current partner, and I suppose we’ll get used to it.” (Keillor himself has been married three times.)

Now critics are combing through Keillor’s voluminous archives for signs of casual misogyny. They surely won’t be hard to find. His 1997 novel Wobegon Boy includes a scene in which the hero, a Lutheran guy who works in public radio, is unjustly accused of sexual harassment for telling an off-color joke. Just this week, when Keillor must have known trouble was looming, he published a column in the Washington Post titled “Al Franken should resign? That’s absurd.” The column has been understandably lambasted online, but in typical Keillor form, it’s actually rather hard to tell if he’s making the point he seems to be making, or gently skewering it.

Keillor’s shtick was nostalgia, so I hope it’s appropriate to indulge on some on the eve of his fall from grace. He was a masterful storyteller and stylist, a booster of great musical talents, and a compelling performer, heavy breathing and all. Who knows what else he might be—we’ll surely find out. Lake Wobegon never existed, but it will still hurt to watch it burn to the ground.
[383 words]

Source: The XX Factor

Part III: Obstacle

Is There Humanity to Be Found Within Serial Killers?
By Natalie Escobar | Nov 30, 2017

[Paraphrase 7]
When Aileen Wuornos was convicted in 1992 for shooting and murdering several men, the press dubbed her “America’s first female serial killer.” In the popular imagination, the term had long been associated with men like Jack the Ripper, Ted Bundy and Jeffrey Dahmer. Some were even more skeptical about the murderous capabilities of the “fairer sex;” in 1998, former FBI profiler Roy Hazelwood reportedly went as far as to say: “There are no female serial killers.”

But as Tori Telfer points out in her new book, Lady Killers: Deadly Women Throughout History, this is far from accurate. She tells the morbid stories of 14 women who used poison, torture, and “hustle” to do their dirty deeds. “These lady killers were clever, bad tempered, conniving, seductive, reckless, self-serving, delusional, and willing to do whatever it took to claw their way into what they saw as a better life,” she writes.

Particular themes repeat themselves over and over again in the book—murdering for love, money, or pure spite. And as the stories of these women have become mythologized, Telfer says, legends have come to portray them as irrational or subhuman to help explain away their crimes.

Take, for example, Darya Nikolayevna Saltykova, an 18th-century noblewoman. Obsessed with cleanliness, she would often beat her serfs mercilessly until they died. By the time the wealthy aristocrat was brought to justice, she allegedly had tortured and killed 138 people. “I am my own mistress,” she once said while watching one servant beat another to death for her. “I am not afraid of anyone.”

When other Russians found out about Darya, they leapt to write her off as “insane,” as humans tend to do when they hear about serial killers, Tefler says. In all the cases she looked at, she says, media would call these women “beasts” or “witches,” refusing to look at them as human. “There’s something in us as humans that just does that,” she says. “We do have kneejerk reactions to horror. And we do want to distance ourselves from it immediately.”

Stories like Darya’s had “poetic resonance” for Telfer—after all, who could make up a story about a Russian Orthodox woman acting like a god? She was similarly drawn to the tale of Kate Bender, the daughter of a family that owned an inn in 1870s Kansas. The 20-something hostess charmed male travelers with her beauty, convincing them to stay for dinner, then the night. And when travelers started disappearing, no one paid much attention; lots of people vanished without a trace on the wild frontier.

But in this instance, Kate was the linchpin of a murderous plot to rob wealthy travelers of their wares. She would coax an unsuspecting guest into a chair near a canvas curtain, and then her father or her brother John Jr. would hit them over the head with a hammer from behind the drapes. Kate would slit their throat, and her mother would keep lookout. They’d keep their victims in a cellar beneath their house and then bury them in the nearby orchard in the middle of the night.

“The Benders are this metaphor for the American West, the dark side of the frontier and westward expansion,” says Telfer. “I would almost think it was just a myth if we didn’t have photos of their townhouse and the open graves. “

In picking her favorite stories, though, Telfer had to sift through a lot of other gruesome tales. She refused to touch the world of “baby farmers,” who would adopt poor people’s children in exchange for money and then neglected or killed them. Murderers who operated since the 1950s weren’t eligible for consideration, either, so she could limit her timeframe. She also passed over the countless stories of mothers who killed their children with arsenic—a common method of infanticide—unless Telfer found something that “pinged” something inside of her.

Writing about serial killers’ mental state proved particularly tricky. Telfer uses “madness” when describing the different killers’ motivations, because she didn’t want to “armchair diagnose from centuries later,” she says. She also didn’t want to stigmatize people who have mental health disorders by linking them to serial killers. “Schizophrenia didn’t make her serial kill, because that’s not how it works,” Telfer says.

Many of these women murdered in an attempt to grasp control over their own lives, Telfer writes. They killed their families for early inheritances, while others killed out of desperation in abusive relationships or revenge for people who had hurt them.

Telfer feels some empathy for these women, even though they committed horrible crimes. Life treated them unfairly, like in the case of a group of older women from Nagyrév, Hungary. All of the women were peasants over the age of 55, living in a small town besieged by post-World War I societal strife and poverty. The harshness of everyday life meant that mothers often poisoned their newborns, who were seen as just another mouth to feed, and no one reported the crimes. And when wives started killing their husbands and other relatives, people turned a blind eye.

But that doesn’t excuse their actions, Telfer says. “A lot of people in interviews sort of seem to want me to say the perfect feminist soundbite about these women,” she says. “And I’m like, well they’re terrible! I can’t ultimately be like, ‘and go, girl, go!’”

But it made her think a lot about the classic “nature versus nurture” debate and how serial killers might fit in with that.

“Ultimately, I enjoy thinking about human nature, and serial killers are like human nature in the extreme,” Telfer says. “I think you can learn a lot from studying them and thinking about what does it mean that, as humans, some of us are serial killers?”
[960 words]

Source: The Smithsonian


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发表于 2017-12-6 21:52:01 | 显示全部楼层
98-02 文史哲
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T6. 3'04"Obstacle
In the past,people often connect serial killers with men,but actually,there were women who committed this horrible deeds.
A new book,written by Tori Telfer, presented a variety of stories about female serial killers.Most of these women were clever,reckless,beautiful and bad-tempered.
In this book, the author mentioned a family committed crimes all together.The daughter owned a inn and she used her beauty to attract travelers to have dinner and to stay.she would let the target to sat on a chair by the canvas curtain.And then,her father or her brother would hit the traveler's head from behind.She would slit the target's throat,while her mother would watch outside.This family buried bodies in the cellar.
Another story tells about how women killed their children,because they regarded a newborn baby as a mouth to feed.
In conclusion,the author has a few things to say.First,these killers cannot be consider to be mental patients because the author does not want to relate mental illness to terrible crimes.Secondly,the author feels empathy towards these women since life treats them unfairly and they just want to control their own lives.Finally,the author wonder is there any humanity to be found in these killers.
convicted  v. 定罪(convict的过去分词);证明…有罪/adj. 证明有罪的;已被判刑的
be convicted for doing sth.
dub  英 [dʌb]  美 [dʌb]/vt. 配音;轻点;打击;授予称号/n. 笨蛋;鼓声
profiler  英 ['prəufailə] 美 ['prəufailə] n. 分析器,分析工具;仿形铣床;[测] 断面仪
morbid 英 ['mɔːbɪd] 美 ['mɔrbɪd] adj. 病态的;由病引起的;恐怖的;病变部位的
torture 英 ['tɔːtʃə] 美 ['tɔrtʃɚ] n. 折磨;拷问;歪曲/vt. 折磨;拷问;歪曲
hustle  英 ['hʌs(ə)l] 美 ['hʌsl]
n. 推;奔忙;拥挤喧嚷
vt. 催促;猛推;强夺
vi. 赶紧;硬挤过去;骗取财富
conniving 英 [kə'naiviŋ] 美 [kə'naɪvɪŋ]
v. 纵容;默许;假装不见;共谋(connive的ing形式)
adj. 纵容的;默许的
seductive 英 [sɪ'dʌktɪv] 美 [sɪ'dʌktɪv]  adj. 有魅力的;性感的;引人注意的
delusional  adj. 妄想的
compendium 英 [kəm'pendɪəm] 美 [kəm'pɛndɪəm] n. 纲要;概略
spite 英 [spaɪt] 美 [spaɪt] n. 不顾;恶意;怨恨/vt. 刁难;使恼怒
mythologize 英 [mɪ'θɒlədʒaɪz] 美 [mɪ'θɑlə,dʒaɪz]/ vt. 写神话;当做神话;把……解释为神话
myth 英 [mɪθ] 美 [mɪθ] n. 神话;虚构的人,虚构的事
portray 英 [pɔː'treɪ] 美 [pɔr'tre] vt. 描绘;扮演
subhuman 英 [sʌb'hjuːmən] 美 [,sʌb'hjumən] adj. 类人的;近似人类的;低于人类的
noblewoman 英 ['nəubl,wumən]  美 ['nəubl,wumən] n. 贵妇人,贵族的妇女
aristocrat 英 ['ærɪstəkræt; ə'rɪst-]  美 [ə'rɪstəkræt] n. 贵族  the wealthy aristocrat
obsess 英 [əb'ses]  美 [əb'sɛs] vt. 迷住,缠住;使…着迷;使…困扰
serf n. 农奴;奴隶;被压迫者
mercilessly 英 ['mə:silisli]  美 ['mɝsɪlɪsli] adv. 残忍地;毫无慈悲地
allegedly 英 [ə'ledʒɪdlɪ] 美 [ə'lɛdʒɪdli] adv. 依其申述;据说,据称
mistress['mɪstrɪs]n. 情妇;女主人;主妇;女教师;女能人 I am my own mistress
kneejerk reactions to horror
inn 英 [ɪn] 美 [ɪn]n. 客栈;旅馆/vi. 住旅馆
20-something hostess 译文:20多岁的女主人
linchpin 英 ['lɪn(t)ʃpɪn] 美 ['lɪntʃpɪn]n. 关键(等于lynchpin);制轮楔;轮辖
wares 英 [wɛəz] 美 [wɛəz] n. [贸易] 商品;货物
coax 英 [kəʊks] 美 [koks]vt. 哄;哄诱;慢慢将…弄好/vi. 哄骗;劝诱
drapes n. 窗帘;褶裥;洞巾(drape的复数)/v. 披在…上;使呈褶状(drape的三单形式)behind the drapes
slit 英 [slɪt] 美 [slɪt]n. 裂缝;投币口/vt. 撕裂;使有狭缝/vi. 纵裂   slit their throat
cellar英 ['selə] 美 ['sɛlɚ] n. 地窖;酒窖;地下室/vt. 把…藏入地窖
orchard 英 ['ɔːtʃəd] 美 ['ɔrtʃɚd] n. 果园;果树林
sift 英 [sɪft] 美 [sɪft]vt. 筛选;撒;过滤;详查/vi. 筛;详查;撒下;细究
gruesome英 ['gruːs(ə)m] 美 ['ɡru:səm]/adj. 可怕的;阴森的
infanticide 英 [ɪn'fæntɪsaɪd] 美 [ɪn'fæntɪsaɪd] n. 杀婴,杀婴者;杀婴犯;杀婴罪
ping 英 [pɪŋ] 美 [pɪŋ] n. 子弹飞过空中的声音;[电子] 声脉冲/vi. 发出撞击声;砰地发声
armchair 英 [ɑːm'tʃeə; 'ɑːm-] 美 ['ɑrmtʃɛr]n. 扶手椅,单人沙发/adj. 不切实际的
stigmatize 英 ['stiɡmətaiz] 美 ['stɪɡmətaɪz]/vt. 诬蔑;玷污;给…打上烙印
schizophrenia英 [,skɪtsə(ʊ)'friːnɪə] 美 [,skɪtsə'frinɪə]/n. [内科] 精神分裂症
abusive 英 [ə'bjuːsɪv] 美 [ə'bjʊsɪv]/adj. 辱骂的;滥用的;虐待的(abuse)
abusive relationships      revenge for people
besiege 英 [bɪ'siːdʒ] 美 [bɪ'sidʒ] vt. 围困;包围;烦扰
societal英 [sə'saɪətəl] 美 [sə'saɪətl] adj. 社会的
strife 英 [straɪf] 美 [straɪf]n. 冲突;争吵;不和 societal strife
harshness英 ['ha:ʃnis] 美 ['ha:ʃnis] n. 严肃;刺耳;粗糙的事物
soundbite英 ['saund,bait] 美 ['saund,bait] n. 一小段话;摘录

发表于 2017-12-7 13:32:38 | 显示全部楼层
98-02 文史哲
Is There Humanity to Be Found Within Serial Killers?
    In general, “serial killer” had long been associated with men. As Tori Telfer pointed out in her new book---Lady Killers, however, she portrayed the morbid stories of 14 women who do their dirty deeds by using any merciless means. Many of these women murdered in an attempt to grasp control over their own lives--- murdering for love, money, or pure spite. Life treated them unfairly, Telfer felt, but that couldn’t be the excuse for their actions. She also claimed that serial killers are like human nature in the extreme.  
write sb off摒弃
发表于 2017-12-7 14:19:52 | 显示全部楼层
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