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[阅读小分队] 【Native Speaker 每日训练计划】No.2859经管

发表于 2020-8-2 20:02:25 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
内容:cherish huang 编辑:Gavin huang   

Wechat ID: NativeStudy / Weibo:

Part I: Speaker

Why students should have mental health days

School can be rife with stress, anxiety, panic attacks and even burnout -- but there's often no formal policy for students who need to prioritize their well-being. Hailey Hardcastle explains why schools should offer mental health days and allow students time to practice emotional hygiene without stigma. Follow along to learn how she and a team of fellow teens transformed their advocacy into law.

Source: TED

[Rephrase 1  |  7:24]

Part II: Speed

3 Hourly Workforce Trends We're Seeing in the Wake of COVID-19
By   Tiffany Delmore      |    1 August 2020
Embrace the new workplace changes and challenges as an opportunity to be innovative.

[Time 2]
From supply chain bottlenecks to inflexible work hours, the post-coronavirus world has exposed a laundry list of weaknesses in what was once considered “business as usual.” Today, many companies are struggling to incorporate new coronavirus restrictions while maintaining workplace productivity — especially those that rely on an hourly workforce who can’t do their jobs remotely.

According to a recent survey, two-thirds of executives believe that this will be the most challenging moment in their careers. But along with the headaches and costs associated with implementing new processes, the COVID-19 crisis also presents opportunities to innovate. Forward-thinking companies are “leaning in” to the chaos and reimagining the way they do business.

Here are some trends we’re seeing for the hourly workforce in the wake of COVID-19.

Virtual interviews, training and onboarding
During the first wave of the pandemic, we saw a spike in demand for teamsters, delivery drivers and other essential workers. This created a major recruitment deficit at a time when many states were under stay-at-home orders, which forced businesses to double down on virtual recruitment efforts.

To meet social-distancing requirements, many businesses have continued to conduct virtual interviews via video chat. And to train these new workers, companies are relying on virtual onboarding and training more than ever before. This month, Walmart opened a new training center in Loveland, Colorado, which will offer virtual training on leadership, safety and supply chain foundations. Community colleges in Alabama are diving into virtual reality to train skilled workers, and now doctors and nurses are being retrained to treat infectious diseases using VR.

Contactless interactions and enforced social distancing
The start of the pandemic brought a shift to curbside pickup, “contactless” delivery and employees stationed at store entrances to count the number of customers entering. The focus was on keeping customers safe, with less emphasis on interactions between workers. But as more data emerges about workplace transmission, we’re seeing a demand for tech designed to reduce contact between employees, ranging from mobile time clocks to social-distancing tools.

Amid concerns over workplace safety, Amazon began using AI to detect social-distancing violations. Ford Motors Co. started testing wearables that vibrate when workers get too close to one another, and Chicago-based Pepper Construction has rolled out AI software to detect clumps of workers congregating on job sites.
[380 words]

[Time 3]
Reimagining scheduling and workforce planning
Absenteeism puts holes in hourly teams all the time. Even prior to the pandemic, absent workers cost American employers $36.4 billion per year, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control. Citing illness, fear of catching the virus and childcare issues, employers now report no-shows have surged.

Entrepreneurs may not be able to allay every fear or childcare challenge, but they can give hourly workers more flexibility. A study by workforce management platform MyWorkChoice found that 75 percent of hourly employees would be less worried about going back to work if they could schedule their own shifts up to a 40-hour limit.

Flexibility is a small price to pay for a more reliable hourly workforce. Here’s how you can manage yours more effectively:
l        Develop a streamlined interview process. While virtual interviews take some getting used to, they can actually save you time when hiring workers en masse. The most time-consuming portion of any interview is often briefing candidates about the position and answering their questions afterward. If you’re conducting multiple interviews, consider tag-teaming candidates to increase efficiency. Have a representative from HR or a veteran employee brief interviewees together in one virtual “room,” and then transfer individual applicants to the hiring manager for one-on-one interviews.
l        Plan for a tech-related learning curve. If you plan to implement social-distancing technology or other tools to reduce contact, you should expect the technology to make things harder at first. Don’t assume that your employees are comfortable with new technology — even if you are. When introducing virtual training, contactless payment or a new app, make sure you take the time to provide clear instructions, and be prepared to do some troubleshooting.
l        Don’t be Big Brother. The COVID-19 crisis has brought a groundswell of changes, not to mention lots of new rules. Mandatory health screenings, social-distancing requirements and mask mandates are for everyone’s safety, but they can also make a workplace feel authoritarian. Remember that your employees are still trying to adjust to the changes, and old habits die hard. Don’t make things worse by creating an atmosphere where employees are afraid to socialize or get caught in a sneeze.

Remember: We’re all navigating this brave new world together. We may not be back to “business as usual,” but you can still manage an hourly workforce that’s healthy, happy and productive. The companies that will emerge from the crisis stronger are those that use this time to innovate.
[410 words]

Source: Entrepreneur

Listening Is the Catalyst to Emerging Market Innovation
By    Sarah Austin      |    31 July 2020
Instead of letting your fears hold you back, here's how you can push past each one to finally create a career you love.

[Time 4]
Thomas Edison, arguably the greatest entrepreneur of modern times, once astutely said that innovation is 1 percent inspiration and 99 percent perspiration, because there’s a balancing act that often goes on between creativity and execution. Diving deep into what the perspiration looks like from the perspective of an entrepreneur is different than it is with an economist, but one would assume that in industries that are focused on emerging markets, entrepreneurs have the upper hand. Great entrepreneurs know how to listen to the perspective of their customers and users while still taking into account the perspective of their advisors and investors.

Changpeng Zhao, or CZ for short, knows a thing or two about emerging markets. Though he’s most famous for his story of going from zero to cryptocurrency billionaire in a year, most people don’t know the reason for his success: He knows how to listen. He turned his company, Binance, into the leading crypto exchange in the world by trading volume because he broadly listened to his customers and target users, then took a bet on the blockchain crypto economy. There were many contributing factors, such as being at the right place at the right time as an entrepreneur, but over the course of 180 days, he grew his company to become the largest in the world within its market.

Smart entrepreneurs follow thought leaders and influencers on social media to be the first to get their opinions and perspectives. This is part of the listening process that sometimes informs related product decisions. One such thought leader and economist who’s also active on Twitter is Nouriel Roubini, a well-known skeptic of cryptocurrencies. He once stated, “Having spent 10 years studying emerging markets, I know that you have patterns repeated over and over again. A bubble is like a fire that needs oxygen to continue…when you see there is no oxygen, things change.”

Roubini believes that it takes more than the combination of experienced entrepreneurship, financing and execution to synthesize the nuanced materials required to create the economic oxygen supply to power market bubbles. Just as the right number and balance of materials are required to synthesize oxygen in nature, the same is true in crypto. Economists tend to inform entrepreneurs about their opinions, speculations and trends. Though some economists may say the cryptocurrency bubble has passed, CZ thinks differently and has identified a new emerging market called "decentralized finance" (DeFi) as something he’s looking at, because as he continues to broadly listen to his users, they’re constantly asking for it. In an interview with CZ on my web show, called "Decentralized Finance," he told me that he’s seen requests from Binance users in the volume of hundreds of thousands of requests for DeFi products and services.
[457 words]

[Time 5]
From his childhood, CZ was constantly reading books and asking questions in order to listen to the answers and put different ideas and concepts together in a way other children did not. As a Chinese-Canadian, he grew up with two different cultures and a family that valued education. He went on to graduate from McGill University, 41 percent of whose students were born outside of Canada, which gave him even more exposure to cultural diversity from around the world. He further honed his ability to listen to different perspectives in order to develop his natural creative tendencies. He says this ability led him become the business executive he is today.

Entrepreneurs must be very careful when building businesses in emerging markets. Though exciting when it succeeds, emerging market innovation can be the most difficult out of all markets because of the unknowns — including cryptocurrency, one of the largest emerging market bubbles of our times.

Without proper precedent to lay the groundwork, being a first mover isn’t always an advantage in the long run. That’s why listening to users in an early stage software business is critical for success as an entrepreneur. The marketing term "deep listening" has its basis in psychology, and it explains the practice of getting to the root of the problem. In emerging markets, where innovation takes a calculated risk to bet on an uncharted business model, it’s not enough to do deep listening with one-off customer surveys that you take with an automated customer service phone robot. And actually, even deep listening isn’t enough. These days, it takes broad listening, a term I coined in 2008 when I founded the Broad Listening marketing software platform. Broad listening helps businesses listen to their customers collectively in order to gain broad psychographic insights to inform their marketing decisions, including creative and copy targeting.

Listening has been a key focus for CZ not only because he's the CEO and founder of the world’s largest crypto exchange or because Binance processes more than $1 billion daily, but because from the very beginning, he had a vision for the company culture in which listening to the community was key. He knew that in order to serve Binance users best, he'd better start by listening to the community. Binance has a strong social media presence, but CZ himself has an incredibly active Twitter account where he constantly engages with Binance users. CZ practices broad listening on Twitter by actually reading all of his comments and conversations. He frequently responds to his active 500,000-plus followers.
[422 words]

[Time 6]
For most people, innovation is part of the creative process, but for CZ it’s about meeting the growing user demand, giving people the products and services they want while still continually executing to meet the needs of the growing Binance community. With CZ's help, I think it’s safe to say that at this point crypto is no longer an emerging market. Crypto is here to stay, and the industry has established itself as a viable asset class within any portfolio. People used to look at crypto and think of Bitcoin, but these days people look at crypto and they think of DeFi. That said, as far as growth opportunities within crypto, DeFi appears to be an emerging market, one largely influenced by Binance users.

CZ told me that emerging markets create challenges for entrepreneurs, but as far as the crypto sector goes, “I think emerging markets like DeFi are still pretty early. There will be failed experiments and a smaller number of successes. As always, the successes will outweigh the failures. But do be careful when dealing with emerging markets and new industries. I always urge entrepreneurs to be careful.” For investors or entrepreneurs, or anyone for that matter, it’s never smart to invest your entire portfolio in emerging markets. American entrepreneur Robert D Arnot, who manages $195 billion in assets, said secret to diversification is, “diversify, but carve out 10 to 20 percent for the most unsolved part of the market: emerging markets value.”

CZ says that at Binance, “we’re definitely looking at DeFi very closely. Binance has two separate platforms. One is like a centralized exchange platform and the other one is sort of the Binance chain, decentralized blockchain. So I think we’re offering similar centralized finance solutions on like saving and staking, and we're letting some of the industry players lead the effort on the decentralized finance development, like KAVA and other projects.”

Experiencing a vast array of cultures and customs around the world gave CZ the ability to have a unique perspective as a global citizen that sets him apart from other entrepreneurs. CZ believes it’s important to look at diverse customs, cultures and ideas from diverse perspectives to help inform decision making and find opportunities to grow his business. He's shown himself to be an entrepreneur who spots opportunities before they become trends.
[389 words]

Source: Entrepreneur

Part III: Obstacle

How to (Actually) Change Someone’s Mind
By  Laura Huang and Ryan Yu    |    31 July 2020

[Paraphrase 7]
If you’re a leader, it’s likely that not everyone who works with you will agree with the decisions you make — and that’s okay. Leadership involves making unpopular decisions while navigating complex relationships with colleagues, partners, and clients. But often, you will need to get buy-in from these constituents, and therefore you will need to convince them to change their mind.

There is little friction involved in convincing people who are your natural supporters. But trying to change the mind of a dissenter, or a detractor, is a different story. How do you go about convincing someone who, for one reason or another, doesn’t see eye-to-eye with you? Someone who gives you a flat out “no”?

In the recent research we completed for Laura’s book, Edge: Turning Adversity into Advantage, we observed, and then interviewed, more than 60 leaders who were trying to convince business associates and other constituents to change their minds on a course of action that they initially disagreed with. The leaders who were most successful in overcoming others’ skepticism were those who diagnosed the root of the fundamental disagreement before trying to persuade. They first asked themselves, “What’s driving my detractor’s resistance?” These leaders often pinpointed which aspects of their arguments elicited the most pushback and the most emotional reactions. Then, depending on the answer, they approached the situation with one of the following three targeted strategies.

The Cognitive Conversation
When to use it: The detractor may be opposed to your argument because of an objective reason. If they’ve clearly articulated a logical set of objections, and they don’t appear to be hiding ulterior motives, approach them with a cognitive conversation. This is especially useful when the detractor is known to have a no-nonsense attitude and can easily set aside emotions in their decision-making process.

How it works: A successful cognitive conversation requires two things: sound arguments and good presentation. Take, for example, a situation where you are pushing to switch suppliers and you’ve found one whose materials and products are superior to the current supplier, whose products have been causing numerous downstream issues. But your colleague is in favor of sticking with your current supplier with whom he has a long-standing relationship. He expresses his resistance to your proposal by pointing out the higher prices the new supplier charges. You want to prepare sound arguments that disprove the detractor’s objections. In this instance, you might point out that the new supplier is actually less expensive in the long run, when you take into account all the additional production costs cause by the current supplier. You also want to use a logical framework and clear storyline to force the detractor to reassess their thinking. For example, you can emphasize that the decision is based on cost, quality, and service, but above all, cost and quality.

Be cautious about not introducing emotions into the discussion, which could give the impression that you and your detractor are not on common ground. For example, you don’t want to make it seem as if you believe your colleague’s relationship with the former supplier is irrelevant. The goal is to show the person that, on an objective and factual basis, their initial stance on the situation isn’t as reasonable as your argument. Be warned, these detractors are not easily swayed by broad generalizations. Be ready to mentally spar with them and come prepared with facts that back up each aspect of your overall argument.

The catch: Don’t assume that getting a “yes” from this type of detractor signals a conversion into an everlasting supporter. You may have persuaded them on this specific issue, but they may disagree with you again in the future. If that’s true, expect to have another cognitive conversation on that separate argument.

The Champion Conversion
When to use it: When the detractor isn’t easily persuaded through cognitive arguments, or when they harbor a grievance in your relationship with them, engaging in debates may be futile. Take, for example, a management decision where you’d like to promote a qualified individual who performed brilliantly under your supervision, but a counterpart of yours argues that your subordinates often get promoted over hers. Even if your promotion candidate is objectively more deserving, others may still feel resentment and refuse to provide support.

How it works: Don’t jump in and try to convince the other person. Instead, invest time in personally learning about and building rapport with them. Here, it’s not about arguments or presentation, at least initially, but understanding their perspective and why they might feel personally affronted. For instance, you might ask questions about her team, and which team members she feels have the most potential. Gradually convert this detractor into someone who is your champion or advocate, perhaps by shedding more light on the qualities that you value in individuals, both on your team as well as your counterpart’s team, or showing how you value her leadership style. By the time the decision must be made, try to make sure you’re both on the same page as to which qualities matter for promotion decisions and that you’ve clearly articulated how your candidate exemplifies those qualities.

The catch: No matter how much of a champion the other person becomes, don’t expect them to agree with a decision that’s fundamentally illogical. You can’t rely on relationship alone; your stance still needs to be backed by clear logic. Additionally, these types of detractors can easily sense if you’re trying to manipulate the situation to get them on your side. Authenticity is key: allow the other person to see who you are so that they can more fully understand your point of view.

The Credible Colleague Approach
When to use it: There are times when the detractor’s deeply-held personal beliefs make them fundamentally opposed to your proposal. Take, for example, a colleague who might disagree with you on the need to run a necessary clinical trial for a new product. Because they believe that the clinical trial might be harmful in some way or run counter to their values, they oppose the idea, even though the evidence shows that the benefits outweigh the harm. It’s sometimes tough to pinpoint where these personal beliefs stem from, but some combination of the person’s upbringing, personal history, and unspoken biases will, at times, make it seemingly impossible for them to accept a decision, no matter what logical or emotional argument you throw their way. In these situations, there isn’t much you can say or do to change their mind.

How it works: Rather than trying to argue with someone who seems resistant, bring in a credible colleague. A champion of your position from another part of the organization, whether they are a peer or superior, may be better-suited to convince this detractor. This forces the detractor to disentangle who you are from what your argument might be and evaluate the idea based on its objective merits. If you and the detractor are at an impasse, the credible colleague might just tip the scales in your favor.

The catch: Calling in an external supporter is a double-edged sword. While it can achieve the outcome you want, it may exacerbate your detractor’s opposition, especially if the detractor feels that the credible colleague has forced them to take your side. It’s critical to find the right colleague who can tactfully advocate for your position while maintaining a cordial relationship.

It’s not easy to have detractors, and it’s even harder to change their minds. The key is to understand the source of their resistance and use a targeted strategy that best resonates with your particular detractor. You’ll have a much better chance of getting a “yes.”
[1275 words]

Source:  Harvard Business Review


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发表于 2020-8-2 22:19:13 | 显示全部楼层
T2 3:44
T3 3:48
T4 4:01
T5 3:16
T6 2:26
T7 9:26

发表于 2020-8-3 22:28:58 | 显示全部楼层
发表于 2020-8-4 11:42:01 | 显示全部楼层
best take care of us, mental health , warrior, panic, couldn’t get anything done, diagnose, mental illness, fatigue, affect, solution, president, mental health, big problem, tragedy, stories, teenage mental health, struck, mental health crisis, suicide, youth aged 10-to…., physical health day, overworked, initiate conversation, keep track of , refer, catch , always ok to break, race, long-distance race, pace yourself, weigh more successful,  

3 hourly workforce trends we’re seeing in the wake of covid-19
Due to the unprecedented health crisis, many companies are struggling to seeking for new strategies to keep workplace productivity in aligned with the related polices. Hourly workforce who cannot work remotely is among the obstacles faced by some businesses. However, crisis always comes with opportunities. New trends, virtual interviews, training and onboarding, contactless interactions and enforced social distancing and reimaging scheduling and workforce planning, will be popularized in the future of post-pandemic. Based on these three trends, companies could take several suggestions which can improve productivity into account.

Curbside: 路边
Allay:If you allay a strong emotion felt by someone, such as fear or worry, you cause them to feel it less or to feel calm again
Forward-thinking companies are “leaning in” to the chaos and reimaging the way they do business

How to (actually) change someone’s mind
It is common for leaders to persuade others to convince their decisions. Faced with different situations, leaders could adopt related strategies to change their detractors’mind. The author lists three methods which can be applied to address distinguished objections from detractors.

Dissenter: someone who dissents
Detractor: someone who criticizes something or someone, often unfairly
Constituent: one of the parts that a substance or combination is made of 成分,要素
What are the basic constituents of the mixture?
Calling in an external supporter is a double-edged sword.
Build rapport with sb (rapport: a good understanding of someone and an ability to communicate well with them
Turning adversity into advantage
The key is to understand the source of their resistance and use a targeted strategy that best resonates with your particular detractor.
Her experience resonate powerfully with me, living, as I do, in a similar family situation.
发表于 2020-8-4 13:41:06 | 显示全部楼层
T2 2'58
T3+T4 6'10
T5 3'03
T6 2'20
The passages emphasizes the importance of listening before investing emerging market. It points out that listening to customers' ideas can inform decision making. Moreover, it promotes 'deep listening' in order to get to the root of the problems, and more importantly, the passages mentions 'broad listening', referring to the process of listening to customers' perspectives collectively, is also critical as it plays an essential role in making decisions.
发表于 2020-8-4 14:45:46 | 显示全部楼层
Why students should have mental health days
Understand everyone has a brain we need to care for
It’s always ok to not be ok. It’s always ok to take a break.

Time2 [380 words] 2:59
Time3 [410 words] 3:35
Time4 [457 words] 3:33
Time5 [422 words] 3:05
Time6 [389 words] 2:18

Part III: Obstacle [1275 words] 12:55

The leaders who were most successful in overcoming others’ skepticism were those who diagnosed the root of the fundamental disagreement before trying to persuade

They first asked themselves, “What’s driving my detractor’s resistance?”

3 strategies to convince people

1) cognitive conversation
if your distractor  is known to have a non-nonsense attitude and can easily set aside emotions in their decision making process.
They could be convinced through the logic explanation, clear thoughts (sound argument) and good presentation

2) champion conversion
Shedding more light on the qualities that you value in individuals.

3) credible colleague approach
When you find your distractor can not be persuaded through both logic way and emotional way, it is suggested to find a third-people who may be the best one to convince him.

But it is also a double sward. It could work really well but it may cause your distractor feel uncomfortable and thought they were being forced to take that decision.

New words:
单词        解释                单词        解释
Astounding        惊人的                Detractor        反对者
sprint        冲刺,全速快跑                flat        平的,单调的,公寓
Look after        关照,照顾                Factual        事实的
Worrier        战士                Sway        摇动,统治,影响
Trauma-induced anxiety                        spar        争论,
dissenter        不同意者                Grievance        委屈,苦衷,怨恨
nausea        恶心,反胃                Futile        无效的,无用,无意义
Tragedies        悲剧                Rapport        和谐一致 亲和,和睦
Stigma        耻辱,特征, 污名                Stance        姿态,立场
Groundbreaking        开创性的,突破性的                Disentangle        解脱出来
Technicalities        技术性,术语,                Impasse        僵局,思路
Sneeze        打喷嚏                exacerbate        使恶化
Buy-in        买进                Non-nonsense        务实的
Friction        摩擦                       
发表于 2020-8-4 14:52:46 | 显示全部楼层
many companies are struggling to incorporate new coronavirus restrictions while maintaining workplace productivity — especially those that rely on an hourly workforce who can’t do their jobs remotely.Here are some trends we’re seeing for the hourly workforce in the wake of COVID-19.
1.Virtual interviews, training and onboarding
2.Contactless interactions and enforced social distancing

3.Reimagining scheduling and workforce planning

Changpeng Zhao, most people don’t know the reason for his success: He knows how to listen. He turned his company, into the leading crypto exchange in the world by trading volume because he broadly listened to his customers and target users, then took a bet on the blockchain crypto economy.

Entrepreneurs must be very careful when building businesses in emerging markets.Listening has been a key focus for CZ not only because he's the CEO and founder of the world’s largest crypto exchange or because Binance processes more than $1 billion daily, but because from the very beginning, he had a vision for the company culture in which listening to the community was key.

T6: 1'47''
CZ believes it’s important to look at diverse customs, cultures and ideas from diverse perspectives to help inform decision making and find opportunities to grow his business. He's shown himself to be an entrepreneur who spots opportunities before they become trends.
发表于 2020-8-5 14:19:50 | 显示全部楼层
OB 10'43
The passage provides guidelines for people (especially leaders) to persuade others to take their side when confronting with disagreement of detractors. The basic principle is to first identify the perspectives of those detractors. In other words, it is useful to pinpoint which aspects of their arguments elicited the most pushback and the most emotional reactions. Three types of perspectives have been listed and the corresponding strategies have been proposed.

1. Cognitive conversation: This type of conversation is effective when detractors do not agree with you because of objective reasons and it is easy for them to set aside personal emotions when making decisions. The leaders are suggested to list out logical reasons and plan a good presentation to guide detractors to reassess their own ideas.

2. Champion conversation:This strategy is used when cognitive conversation does not work well. Those people who do not agree with your decisions may harbor a grievance in your relationship with them, and in those cases, engaging those people in discussion may be vain. The more effective way is to spend time understanding their perspectives and building rapport with them.

3. The Credible Colleague Approach.
In this case, people do not agree with the decision you made as it does not align with their personal beliefs, which are cultivated through a complex process including personal education, family background and so on. The personal beliefs cannot not be changed in a short time, so there is not much you can do to change their mind, except inviting a credible colleague who is on your side to help you. However, it is critical to choose the appropriate person to be the 'credible colleague', as this approach can be a double-edged sword. On one hand, it can help you get the expected outcome.On the other hand, it may give detractor a sense that you are forcing them to take your side. Hence, leaders should be cautious when they are attempting to adopt this approach.

发表于 2020-8-5 21:43:57 | 显示全部楼层
T2 3’05
Laundry list, today, new restructions while maintain productivity
2/3 most challenging, opportunities
Trends:virtual recruitment
Video chat, eg walmart, alabama, doctors
Contactless delivery

T3 2’59
More flexibility, study:75% less worry
How manage effectively:
Interview process
Tech, harder at first, clear instructions
Not big brother
Get back, emerge

T4 3’04
Cz,reason: listen. Trading volume,
Social media, related product,nr,repeated,
More to synthesize, eco, defi, listen
发表于 2020-8-5 22:38:38 | 显示全部楼层
It's hard to convice sb if they can not be swayed by the logical sentences because of personal beliefs.Even other people can agree with you, it's normal to see the pushback and to spar with you again.
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