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[阅读小分队] Native Speaker每日训练计划】No.2858文史哲

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发表于 2020-8-2 17:04:51 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
内容:Inge Zhou 编辑: Vera Pan

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Part I: Speaker

3 secrets of resilient people
Lucy Hone, August 2019

Everyone experiences loss, but how do you cope with the tough moments that follow? Resilience researcher Lucy Hone shares three hard-won strategies for developing the capacity to brave adversity, overcome struggle and face whatever may come head-on with fortitude and grace.

Source: TED
https://www.ted.com/talks/lucy_hone_3_secrets_of_resilient_people#t-74791
[Rephrase 16:05]





Part II: Speed

Olivia de Havilland, the Last Lioness of the Hollywood Studio System
Rachel Syme, July 28th 2020

[Time 2]
I met Olivia de Havilland for the first and only time in Paris, in the summer of 2013, in the garden of her stately home at 3 Rue Bénouville, in the Sixteenth Arrondissement. I remember that it was unseasonably hot, even for June, because I was sweating through the pumpkin-colored silk blouse and leather pants I had bought on Rue Saint-Honoré to wear for the occasion. My high heels kept getting caught in the cobblestones as I walked to de Havilland’s residence from the Metro; by the time I arrived at the door of her town house, at dusk, I had blisters on both feet. De Havilland, by contrast, looked as fresh as a bouquet chilling in a florist’s refrigerator. She wore a lightweight pastel dress and a string of pearls, with her elegant puff of bone-white hair swept into a voluminous chignon. She smelled like strong perfume—perhaps a vintage Jean Patou or Robert Piguet fragrance. She had bright brown eyes and a peaches-and-cream complexion. She was ninety-six years old and still disarmingly beautiful. We sat in her garden, at a delicate white wrought-iron table next to an ivy trellis. De Havilland’s personal assistant, a young expat—the actress regularly hired young women who were new to Paris, who then passed the job along to other newcomers, in a kind of sororal daisy chain—brought us a small plate of tea sandwiches and a bottle of champagne on ice. Drinking champagne every day, de Havilland told me, was her secret to eternal youth.
[254 words]

[Time 3]
We kicked the bottle, and I tottered out of her house, an hour and a half later, feeling floaty and flushed. The visit feels to me now like a rose-colored dream, especially as I have no recording of our conversation; this was at de Havilland’s specific request. Our rendezvous was purely a “getting to know you,” brokered by a mutual friend as a first gentle tiptoe toward a magazine story I had long hoped to write about de Havilland’s life and career. That story ended up fizzling, as some stories do—the magazine editor who was interested in it left the industry, and Mme. de Havilland, as she was known in France, did not want to speak to me on the phone in an official capacity. (“She hates ‘phoners,’ ” her lawyer, who handled her affairs, told me via e-mail.) It was probably for the best—Mme. was famously prickly when it came to guarding her image. A few years later, de Havilland sued the showrunner Ryan Murphy for what she considered to be a defamatory portrayal on the FX series “Feud,” in which Catherine Zeta-Jones played her as a vicious gossip; the case went all the way to the Supreme Court before the panel declined to hear it last year.
[211 words]

[Time 4]
This was not de Havilland’s first legal battle but rather her final salvo in a lifetime of crusading for what she felt she deserved. The actress, who died on Sunday, at the age of a hundred and four, is the namesake of a landmark law passed, in 1944, as a result of her battle with Warner Bros. over her right to exit her contract. De Havilland, who was born in Tokyo to English parents (her mother was the stage actress Lilian Fontaine; her father, Walter de Havilland, was an English professor and patent lawyer), signed with Warner Bros. in 1936 and rose to stardom playing the blushing ingénue. She starred opposite Errol Flynn in films such as “The Charge of the Light Brigade” (1936) and “The Adventures of Robin Hood” (1938), and the pair became an onscreen duo of sorts, with de Havilland playing the dulcet damsel to Flynn’s swashbuckling rogue. De Havilland—who planned to be an English teacher before she was discovered as an actress—brought a sense of studiousness and poise to her dramatic roles; the tension in her performances came more from her tightly coiled control than from any sense of abandon. She carried herself stick-straight, like a governess or a débutante, which made it all the more thrilling to watch when the rakish Flynn swept her off her feet.

When de Havilland’s contract expired after seven years, Warner Bros. told her that she was still the studio’s property. She sued.Photograph George Hurrell / Warner Bros / Kobal / Shutterstock

Still, de Havilland was unsatisfied with the studio’s tendency to shove her into romantic roles. In 1939, she achieved a small victory when she convinced Jack Warner (with the help of his wife, Ann, whom de Havilland befriended and beseeched) to loan her to M-G-M to play the brainy, selfless Melanie Hamilton Wilkes in “Gone with the Wind,” a role that she felt was finally equal to her acting chops. She earned an Academy Award nomination for the performance, in the Best Supporting Actress category. (Her co-star Hattie McDaniel won that year.) Still, when she returned to Warner Bros., executives continued to send her scripts that she felt underutilized her talent. She rejected them outright, leading the studio to issue her several punitive suspensions. When de Havilland’s contract expired after seven years, Warner told her that she was still the studio’s property, owing to the time she had lost while not working. De Havilland sued and took the case all the way to the California Supreme Court, which ultimately found in her favor, thereby setting a new rule in Hollywood that no studio could hold a performer beyond seven calendar years. As the Hollywood historian Karina Longworth explained in an episode of her podcast, “You Must Remember This,” about the case, “Warner Bros. now had no recourse. They and all of the studios who used suspensions to control their talent had lost. Olivia de Havilland was finally free.”
[492 words]
[Time 5]
De Havilland was open about the fact that she craved heftier roles in large part because she desperately wanted to win an Oscar. In particular, she wanted to win an Oscar before her younger sister, Joan Fontaine, who signed a contract with R.K.O. Pictures the year before de Havilland signed with Warner Bros. (Fontaine ended up beating de Havilland to Best Actress in a Leading Role, but not by much; she won for her role in Hitchcock’s “Suspicion,” in 1942, and de Havilland won for playing a desperate mother in “To Each His Own,” five years later, and won again for playing a wealthy woman who is constantly manipulated by the men around her, in “The Heiress.”) The sisters had one of the longest-running and most well-documented family feuds in Hollywood history, even once going for years without speaking. This rivalry grew in the press into its own cottage industry, prompting constant tabloid covers and a host of dime-store biographies. The story was catnip to the public—famous sisters, battling it out for top billing—but, toward the end of her life, Fontaine insisted that it had all been overblown. “Two nice girls liking each other isn’t copy,” Fontaine told a reporter in 2013. “Let me just say, Olivia and I have never had a quarrel.”

I had hoped to discuss Fontaine with de Havilland during our visit, but she made it clear to me that the subject was off-limits. (At the time, Fontaine was still alive; she died six months later.) Instead, she peppered our conversation with memories of Clark Gable and Vivien Leigh, and waxed sentimental about Paris, where she had lived for more than fifty years. She was spending her days working on her memoir. The book, which never emerged during her lifetime, was to be her second. Her first, “Every Frenchman Has One,” came out in 1962, nearly a decade after de Havilland relocated to Paris, where she moved into the town house on Rue Bénouville with her second husband, a suave magazine editor named Pierre Galante. That book was a series of disconnected, fish-out-of-water essays about an American diva in Paris, in which she complained about her French maid, who never scrubbed the bathtub, and marvelled that a woman in France could be considered attractive without big breasts. (“I know just as well as you do that back home in the States if a girl’s got a delicate, elfin 32 she has no choice but to commit suicide,” she wrote. “At the Lido, if you’ve got a delicate, elfin 32, you’ve got a job.”)
[429 words]

[Time 6]
De Havilland separated from Galante, in 1962 (they divorced years later), and never married again. She focussed, instead, on her two children—a son, Benjamin, who died in 1991, of Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and a daughter, Gisèle, who survives her. Though she continued acting through the nineteen-eighties, her career never hit the heights that it attained when she was living in Los Angeles. The elegance and slowness of Parisian life seemed to suit her; even from abroad, she could still serve as a kind of distant grande dame of the industry, the last living lioness of the studio system. “She was a big star, but stardom didn’t ruin her life,” Longworth told me on Monday. “Nobody really thinks of her career as ending in decline or tragedy. She had a happy ending, and, more than that, it was an ending of her own choice and making.” I hope, one day, to finally read the memoir that de Havilland was working on when I met her.
[164 words]

Source: New Yorker
https://www.newyorker.com/culture/postscript/olivia-de-havilland-the-last-lioness-of-the-hollywood-studio-system


Part III: Obstacle



A magical dot over in the corner
Roger Ebert, July 11th 2012

[Paraphrase 7]
Viewing Hiyao Miyazaki's "Spirited Away" for the third time, I was struck by a quality between generosity and love. On earlier viewings I was caught up by the boundless imagination of the story. This time I began to focus on the elements in the picture that didn't need to be there. Animation is a painstaking process, and there is a tendency to simplify its visual elements. Miyazaki, in contrast, offers complexity. His backgrounds are rich in detail, his canvas embraces space liberally, and it is all drawn with meticulous attention. We may not pay much conscious attention to the corners of the frame, but we know they are there, and they reinforce the remarkable precision of his fantasy worlds.

"Spirited Away" is surely one of the finest of all animated films, and it has its foundation in the traditional bedrock of animation, which is frame-by-frame drawing. Miyazaki began his career in that style, but he is a realist and has permitted the use of computers for some of the busywork. But he personally draws thousands of frames by hand. "We take handmade cell animation and digitize it in order to enrich the visual look," he told me in 2002, "but everything starts with the human hand drawing."

Consider a scene in "Spirited Away" where his young heroine stands on a bridge leading away from the magical bathhouse in which much of the movie is set. The central action and necessary characters supply all that is actually needed, but watching from the windows and balconies of the bathhouse are many of its occupants. It would be easier to suggest them as vaguely moving presences, but Miyazaki takes care to include many figures we recognize. All of them are in motion. And it isn't the repetitive motion of much animation, in which the only idea is simply to show a figure moving. It is realistic, changing, detailed motion.

Most people watching the movie will simply read those areas of the screen as "movement." But if we happen to look, things are really happening there. That's what I mean by generosity and love. Mikayazi and his colleagues care enough to lavish as much energy on the less significant parts of the frame. Notice how much of the bathhouse you can see. It would have been quicker and easier to show just a bridge and a doorway. But Miyazaki gives his bathhouse his complexity of a real place, which possesses attributes whether or not the immediate story requires them.

The story of "Spirited Away" has been populated with limitless creativity. Has any film ever contained more different kinds of beings that we have never seen anywhere before? Miyazaki's imagination never rests. There is a scene where the heroine and her companion get off a train in the middle of a swamp. In the distant forest they see a light approaching. This turns out to be an old-fashioned light pole that is hopping along on one foot. It bows to them, turns, and lights the way on the path they must take. When they arrive at a cottage, it dutifully hangs itself above the gate. The living light pole is not necessary. It is a gift from Miyazaki.

His story involves a 10-year-old girl named Chihiro, who isn't one of those cheerful little automatons that populate many animated films. She is described by many critics as "sullen." Yes, and impatient and impetuous, as she's stuck in the back seat during a long drive to a house her parents want to examine. Her father loses the way in a dark forest, and the road seems to end at the entrance to a tunnel. Investigating it, they find it leads to an abandoned amusement park. But at dusk, some of the shops seem to reopen, especially a food shop whose fragrances steam into the cool air. Her parents fall eagerly upon the counter jammed with food, and stuff their mouths. Chihiro is stubborn and says she isn't hungry. Her parents eat so much they double or triple in size. They eat like pigs, and they become pigs. These aren't the parents of American animation, but parents who can do things that frighten a child.

The amusement park leads to a gigantic floating bathhouse, whose turrets and windows and ledges and ornamentation pile endlessly upon themselves. A friendly boy warns her to return, but she is too late, and the bathhouse casts off from the shore. Chihiro ventures inside, and finds a world of infinite variety. She cannot find her way out again. The boy says everyone must have a job, and sends her to Kamaji, an old bearded man with eight elongated limbs, who runs the boiler room. He and a young girl advise her to apply to Yubaba, who owns the bathhouse. This is a fearsome old witch who exhales plumes of smoke and a cackling laugh.

This is the beginning of an extraordinary adventure. Chihiro will meet no more humans in the bathhouse. She will be placed under a spell by Yubaba, who steals her name and gives her a new one, Sen. Unless she can get her old name back again, she can never leave. One confusing space opens onto another in the bathhouse, whose population is a limitless variety of bizarre life-forms. There are little fuzzy black balls with two eyeballs, who steal Sen's shoes. Looming semi-transparent No Faces, who wear masks over their ghostly shrouds. Three extraordinary heads without bodies, who hop about looking angry, and resemble caricatures of Karl Marx. There is a malodorous heap of black slime, a river creature whose body has sopped up piles of pollution. Shape-shifting, so common in Japanese fantasy, takes place here, and the boy who first befriended her is revealed as a lithe sea dragon with fierce fangs.

Sen makes her way through this world, befriended by some, shunned by others, threatened by Yubaba, learning as she goes. She never becomes a "nice girl," but her pluck and determination win our affection. She becomes determined to regain her name and return to the mainland on a daily train (which only runs one way). She wants to find her parents again.

Miyazaki says he made the film specifically for 10-year-old girls. That is why it plays so powerfully for adult viewers. Movies made for "everybody" are actually made for nobody in particular. Movies about specific characters in a detailed world are spellbinding because they make no attempt to cater to us; they are defiantly, triumphantly, themselves. As I watched the film again, I was spellbound as much as by any film I consider great. That helps explain why "Spirited Away" grossed more than "Titanic" in Japan, and was the first foreign film in history to open in the U. S. having already made more than $200 million.

I was so fortunate to meet Miyazaki at the 2002 Toronto film festival. I told him I love the "gratuitous motion" in his films; instead of every movement being dictated by the story, sometimes people will just sit for a moment, or sigh, or gaze at a running stream, or do something extra, not to advance the story but only to give the sense of time and place and who they are.

"We have a word for that in Japanese," he said. "It's called 'ma.' Emptiness. It's there intentionally." He clapped his hands three or four times. "The time in between my clapping is 'ma.' If you just have non-stop action with no breathing space at all, it's just busyness."
[1255 words]

Source: Roger Ebert
https://www.rogerebert.com/reviews/great-movie-spirited-away-2002

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发表于 2020-8-3 14:04:04 | 显示全部楼层
#2858
Speak
Miscarriage, abortion, code with mental illness.
Adversity does not discriminate.
Resilient research. 1.1M America soldiers. You don’t get a much more skeptical discerning audience than the American drill sergeants returning from Afghanistan.
Post-quake period. Boost resilience (恢复能力)
2014, 12 years old. Crashing into them and killed them. I am a grieving mother facing unthinkable new.  My world smashed to smithereens
Prime candidate for family estrangement, likely to get divorced.
5 stages of grieving: anger, bargaining, denial, depression, acceptance. 5 years to grief. What I need most is hope.  I wanted to be an active participant in my grief process. So I decided to turn my back to that advice. You can rise up from adversity. think certain way help you to navigate tough time.
parental bereavement
3 go-to Strategies:
1) Know the shit happens.
They know the suffering is part of life. When the tough time come, suffering is part of every human resilient. Why not me? Terrible things happen to me just like they do everybody else.
2) Resilient people good at choose carefully choose their attention.
Focus on the things they can change. We are good at knowing the negative things, which served us well from the evolutionary perspective. Turning the negative into the good. You got so much to live for.  Don’t loss what you have to what you have lost. Benefit finding. Try to find something grateful. Switch your attention into more positive things. 3 good things happen every day. Hunting the good stuff.
3) Is what I am doing helping or harming me?
Be kind to yourself

Live and grief at the same time and be always grateful.

Time2 [411 words] 4:11
Time3 [370 words] 3:35
Time4 [571 words] 3:52
Time5 [401 words] 2:53
Time6 [521 words] 3:43
Time7 [429 words] 3:45

发表于 2020-8-3 21:38:52 | 显示全部楼层
OB:7:11
发表于 2020-8-3 23:12:25 发自手机 Web 版 | 显示全部楼层
OB: 8'27
发表于 2020-8-4 20:36:11 | 显示全部楼层
T2: 1:53
Sweat出汗 pumpkin-colored南瓜色 leather皮革 blister水泡
bouquet chilling in a florist s refrigerator'
花束冷藏在花店的冰箱里
She wore a lightweight pastel dress and a string of pearls, with her elegant puff of bone-white hair swept into a voluminous chignon. She smelled like strong perfume perhaps a vintage Jean Patou or Robert Piguet fragrance.

她穿着一件轻薄的柔和连衣裙,戴着一串珍珠,一头优雅蓬松的白骨头发梳成一个蓬松的发髻。她闻起来像浓烈的香水,也许是让·帕图(Jean Patou)或罗伯特·皮盖(Robert Piguet)的复古香水。
T3 1:35
Totter蹒跚;踉跄
Floaty 吃水浅的;能浮起的
Flushed脸红的
Fizzling发嘶嘶声;失败,夭折
•        Prickly adj. 多刺的;刺痛的;易动怒的
Defamatory adj. 诽谤的;中伤的;破坏名誉的
Portrayal描绘;画像,肖像
Vicious adj. 恶毒的;恶意的;堕落的;
Gossip n. 小道传闻;随笔;
Panel n. 仪表板;嵌板;座谈小组,全体陪审员
T4: 3:27
Episode一段经历;插曲;一段情节;
podcast n. 播客
brought a sense of studiousness and poise to her dramatic roles; the tension in her performances came more from her tightly coiled control than from any sense of abandon.
为她的戏剧角色带来了一种勤奋和稳重的感觉;她表演中的紧张感更多地来自于她紧紧盘绕的控制,而不是任何放纵感。
T5:3:38
Crave        渴望
Heftier        健壮的
Desperately        拼命地
Feuds        n. 不和;争执;封地;(部落或家族间的)世仇
Cottage        小屋
Catnip        n. 猫薄荷
Quarrel        争吵
Sentimental        感伤
Suave        adj. 柔和的,温和的;文雅的,娴雅的
Fish-out-of-water        [谚]如鱼离水;离水之鱼,不得其所
Scrub        刷洗
Marvel        奇迹
T6: 1:14
T7: 8:54
发表于 2020-8-4 22:50:37 | 显示全部楼层
T2:1:58
T3:1:46
T4:3:44
T5:4:01
发表于 2020-8-5 02:38:59 | 显示全部楼层
T2 2'25
T3 1'22
T4 2'15
T5 2'24
T6 45'
发表于 2020-8-5 23:49:51 发自手机 Web 版 | 显示全部楼层
10:07

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发表于 7 天前 发自 iPhone | 显示全部楼层
OB:11’12[1255W]
发表于 6 天前 | 显示全部楼层
T2: 02:54
T3: 02:43
T4: 03:07
T5: 03:17
T6: 02:29
OBSTACLE: 8:39
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