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[阅读小分队] 【Native Speaker 每日训练计划】No.2852经管

发表于 2020-7-26 21:44:23 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
内容:cherish huang 编辑:Gavin huang   

Wechat ID: NativeStudy / Weibo:

Part I: Speaker

The art of stillness

The place that travel writer Pico Iyer would most like to go? Nowhere. In a counterintuitive and lyrical meditation, Iyer takes a look at the incredible insight that comes with taking time for stillness. In our world of constant movement and distraction, he teases out strategies we all can use to take back a few minutes out of every day, or a few days out of every season. It's the talk for anyone who feels overwhelmed by the demands for our world.

Source: TED

[Rephrase 1  |  15:28]

Part II: Speed

Brain Hacks to Boost Motivation and Beat the Work From Home Blues
By   Claire Cale and Patricia Peyton      |    24 July 2020
Learn how to achieve more, stress less and live and work more happily.

[Time 2]
As the number of days we’re spending in lockdown – or simply still working from home (if we would rather be in the office) – continue to tick by with no clear end in sight, what for some of us was the novelty of working from home has clearly worn off and our days are starting to feel more like “rinse and repeat.” When a routine begins to feel monotonous, we often feel a lack of motivation.  And, when our motivation starts to wane, so, too can our productivity.  

Physical Intelligence can help.  Right now, literally hundreds of chemicals (hormones and neurotransmitters) are racing through each of our bodies in our bloodstream and nervous system.  Some of those chemicals have familiar names, such as cortisol, adrenalin and testosterone.  Those chemicals largely dictate how we think, feel, speak and behave, yet most of us operate primarily at the mercy of those chemicals – experiencing thoughts, reactions and emotions – without realizing that we can actively manage them. Physical Intelligence is the ability to detect and strategically influence the balance of certain key chemicals so that we can achieve more, stress less and live and work more happily.

Physical Intelligence techniques have been used for decades – many drawn from the worlds of sports and the arts – and are all underpinned by neuroscience.  There are hundreds of Physical Intelligence techniques – ways of breathing, moving, thinking (e.g., visualizing) and interacting with each other – all easy to incorporate into our day to day life.  There are four elements of Physical Intelligence:  Strength, Flexibility, Resilience and Endurance, each important for motivation and productivity in different ways.

When we feel positive about something or someone, we are having a ‘towards’ response in which dopamine (our pleasure and reward chemical) rises and cortisol (our stress chemical) settles to optimal. We feel rewarded, which makes us want to engage more, do more, be more in the situation. When we feel disappointed, demoralized, lacking motivation, angry or unhappy about something, we are having an ‘away’ response, a primary threat response in which cortisol rises and dopamine drops. We feel unrewarded by the situation – therefore, we instinctively move away from it or resist it.

The drop in motivation that many people are experiencing as they face the uninspiring or perhaps worrisome routine of work in lockdown is a classic “away response.”  If we can recognize situations, demands and expectations for what they are – triggers of our primary threat (away) or primary reward (towards) responses, then we can be less reactive and more constructive in how we respond.  If we’re working with or leading a team (or even raising children) and we know what people need in order to feel fully engaged, we can speak and behave in a way that draws people together, by creating and fostering the chemistry of a ‘towards’ response – whether we’re working together in an office or connecting via videoconference.  
[480 words]

[Time 3]
In order to manage our towards and away response and create an environment that actively creates towards responses we need Strength – inner strength, confidence, resolve, the ability to stand our ground and act and think wisely and decisively without threatening others or feeling threatened, being positively assertive, independently minded, astute and highly productive, and able to increase our capacity for achievement.  The following strength techniques provide a foundation for preparing yourself to recognize and respond to those towards or away responses and to create towards responses across our teams.
        Grounding Yourself:  How empowered, confident, and tolerant you feel is greatly impacted by your posture. Grounded posture enables you to feel simultaneously stronger, more present, alert and more at ease.  Centering reinforces the chemistry of high testosterone and low cortisol, and supports our dopamine function, enabling us to focus and coordinate our physical and mental energy to achieve and win. To ‘ground’ yourself, feel the weight of your body on the ground or in the chair – rooted rather than ‘uptight’. Continue paced breathing, release tension throughout the body; place your center of mass where you need it (move your body forwards sideways and backward to find the optimal point); breathe down to below the navel (to your center of gravity), and focus.  Repeat three times: Balance, Breathe, Focus
        Paced Breathing:  Become aware of your breathing as you read this. Is it fast or slow, shallow or deep? Many people hold their breath while they are thinking, snatch breaths while writing emails, and breathe too shallowly in business meetings or while cooking supper or watching television. Life interferes with breathing in ways that were not intended, to the detriment of our cognitive function, emotional stability…and our productivity. Paced breathing enables us to power up our brains and stabilizes our emotions.  It releases the chemical acetylcholine, which counteracts adrenalin and empowers us to feel mentally/emotionally stable and confident, able to handle situations with clarity, balance, and control.  
        Ideally, spend 10+ minutes daily breathing diaphragmatically, with a steady count in (through the nose) and out (through the mouth) – in and out counts can be different.  Explore counts comfortable for you. A study of South African bankers found that after 21 days of paced breathing, they achieved an average of 62% improvement in cognitive capacity on complex decision-making tasks, whereas poor breathing leads to procrastination and delaying important decisions.  Meditation is a great way to bring paced breathing into your daily routine.
[410 words]

[Time 4]
Lack of motivation can also be the result of diminished inspiration, especially if we’re following the same old routine – and distracted by uncertainty and worry.  To increase inspiration we need to improve our capacity for creativity and innovation, as well as the ability to think divergently (essential for creativity and innovation).  These techniques are a good start:  
        Physical inflexibility leads to mental inflexibility.  Loosening tension in your body will help free your mind.  Scan your body daily to identify and then address any areas where you are holding tension.  
        Start walking, even if just around the house.  Research indicates that we are 45% more likely to have an innovative idea while walking rather than seated, even if on a treadmill.  
        Shifting your focus to look at something we find beautiful n art or nature also sparks creativity.  
        With teams, create cultures based on trust and novelty while encouraging risk-taking. Maintain a positive mood by valuing people’s contributions so that they continue to get deeply immersed in thinking together. Use Open Space and encourage people to make clear plans to implement new ideas agreed upon by the team.

Innovation is particularly important today as organizations work to implement creative solutions in response to the unique challenges and opportunities the pandemic has created.
[216 words]

[Time 5]
Resilience is our ability to bounce back from adversity and challenge (such as the current crisis), to remain optimistic in the face of disappointment, to develop a learning mindset…and to build networks of support, particularly effective for increasing productivity.  
        Neuroeconomist Paul Zak’s research, published in The Trust Factor, reports that in organizations that share information broadly and intentionally build relationships, and where leaders ask for support, there is 76% more engagement, people have 106% more energy, they are 50% more productive, 29% more satisfied with their lives, have 13% fewer days sick and 40% fewer cases of burnout. He has tested oxytocin (our social bonding and trust chemical) levels in the bloodstream of thousands of employees across many industries and cultures and has shown that trust and purpose reinforce each other, creating a mechanism for high oxytocin levels over a longer period. Robust networks and finding support, both boost oxytocin, which helps build trust – and, therefore, are a key part of our happiness and a cornerstone of our resilience.
        Building and maintaining those support networks is especially important in the midst of this crisis because we are not able to spend time with each other in person, reducing our oxytocin levels.  Make a concerted effort to leverage your personal and professional networks by reaching out to people across your network to offer support.  If meeting via videoconference, make eye contact through the camera lens to boost oxytocin in others even from a distance.

Another key component of Resilience is relaxation and recovery.  Sometimes lack of motivation and productivity are related to being overworked.  If you find that you are working harder or longer hours than usual and with fewer boundaries in the midst of this crisis, make sure that you are allowing enough time for restorative activities.  Life is a balancing act of effort and recovery. After pushing ourselves, we must allocate time for recovery.  Try the following:
        Write REST in blocks in your calendar throughout the week and honor those blocks of time:  Retreat (stepping away from all digital devices, media, social media, etc. – giving yourself a mental break), Eat (consuming healthy food, lean protein, vegetables, fruit, limited simple carbohydrates, sugar and alcohol), Sleep (7-9 hours per night inching up the hours, as needed with naps or going to sleep a few minutes earlier each night) and Treat (healthy restorative treats:  hikes, a hot bath, soothing cup of tea, playing with children, beautiful music, whatever you find restorative).  
[413 words]

[Time 6]
Endurance refers to mental toughness, perseverance and planning.  When working on something that requires extreme patience or a sustained effort over the long term, we need endurance. Visualize an “Endurance Tunnel.”  As you move through that tunnel, the walls may start to close in and the light at the end of the tunnel may dim.  To keep those walls wide and strong and the light switched on, especially when the going gets tough, these techniques will help increase your motivation, and in turn, your productivity:
        Allocate the first two hours of the day to key tasks.  Tackling important tasks early elevates testosterone because confronting tasks, (rather than postponing or avoiding them), gives you a sense of moving bravely into new territory. Dopamine is also boosted because you will feel the reward of achievement. Starting the morning with a clear head, when memory is sharp and you are able to quickly absorb information, also enables acetylcholine to balance adrenalin. This confidence and motivation will carry throughout the rest of your day, even if your brain is not quite as sharp as the day progresses. Conversely, procrastination and avoidance lower dopamine levels and increase cortisol levels, perpetuating the cycle of demotivation and lack of productivity.
        Self-appreciation and encouragement for and from those around us enable us to endure the difficulties of whatever Endurance Tunnel we are in. It is important to celebrate our own successes and give and receive appreciation in order to fuel dopamine levels that allow us to focus on challenging goals. We need each other, and the support and appreciation we give and receive is an important part of being motivated.
        Motivation is improved when we are aligned with our values and core purpose, doing work that puts us in our element, and using our strengths to the fullest. Becoming more conscious of those deep motivations enhances our productivity and makes it more likely that we will persevere.
        Language plays a big part in how motivated people feel. We need to use a language of ownership v. blame in order to make critiquing a team or company performance motivational. Consider adopting this team practice… After any important event, meeting or project, one by one, have team members critique themselves first – sharing what went well and where they could improve. Then provide feedback to each other. This practice develops autonomy and relatedness, two critical factors for motivation identified by Edward Deci and Richard Ryan in their 2016 book Self-determination Theory: Basic Psychological Needs in Motivation, Development, and Wellness. Developing a culture where individuals can be autonomous (high dopamine and testosterone) yet strongly bonded (high oxytocin) creates the conditions for ongoing motivation and productivity.

With these Physical Intelligence techniques, you should be able to motivate yourselves and others, enhancing productivity throughout this crisis and beyond.
[469 words]

Source: Entrepreneur

Part III: Obstacle

3 Scenarios for How the Pandemic Could Change U.S. Health Care
By  David Blumenthal, Eric C. Schneider, Shanoor Seervai and Arnav Shah    |    24 July 2020

[Paraphrase 7]
Confusion reigns concerning the future course and consequences of the novel coronavirus pandemic in the United States. But one thing is certain: The health care system that emerges from the pandemic will not be the same. The question is, how will it be transformed? We attempt to answer that by posing alternative scenarios based on assumptions about key parameters that can heavily influence how the pandemic evolves. The analysis makes clear that in its pending stimulus package, Congress needs to take steps to prevent potentially long-lasting damage that Covid-19 may inflict on the health care system.

Three factors will prove most critical to the pandemic’s future: the public’s use of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) such as facial coverings and physical distancing; the availability, efficacy, and public acceptance of one or more vaccines; and the availability and efficacy of anti-viral therapies. There are obviously dozens of other possible influences on the course of the pandemic such as whether “herd immunity” might someday slow the spread. But these three factors have the greatest potential to decisively alter the course of Covid-19 in the United States and elsewhere if we succeed in instituting one or more of them.

To explore how the pandemic may evolve, we posit three scenarios with respect to these three factors:
1.        A dream case in which everything goes as well as could reasonably be expected.
2.        A catastrophic case in which everything goes badly.
3.        A middle case in which some things go well, but others don’t.

In evaluating the consequences of these scenarios for the nation’s health care system, we make one important additional assumption: The linchpin for a return to the health care system’s pre-pandemic “normal” state lies with the nation’s ability to assure the safety of segments of the population that are most vulnerable to the pandemic, especially the elderly and the chronically ill. These groups comprise the 5% of the population that consumes 50% of health care resources. Only when they feel safe to venture out will health care institutions experience a vigorous recovery in demand for their services. While telehealth can partially compensate for the falloff in the use of services, it will go only so far. It cannot replace hips or knees, do colonoscopies, or insert cardiac stents.

Scenario 1: The Dream Case
It plays out as follows:
1.        By September 1, governors and other political leaders have widely and aggressively implemented NPIs throughout the United States with strong public compliance.
2.        By November 1, highly effective anti-virals have reduced the mortality from Covid-19 among the elderly to the level of influenza: less than 1% of those infected.
3.        By January 1, at least one vaccine equivalent in efficacy to smallpox or measles is available for widespread use.
4.        By July 1, 60% of the American public is vaccinated, including most high-risk individuals, creating effective herd immunity.
5.        By December 1, 2021, the pandemic is declared over in the United States.

This highly optimistic scenario suggests that by early fall, viral transmission will be falling rapidly throughout the United States and that by late fall or early winter, it will be low enough for high-risk groups to feel safe. At that point, demand for health care services should begin to grow rapidly, accelerating with the arrival of effective therapies and a vaccine. Within 12 months, the health care system should be experiencing inpatient and outpatient volumes that equal or exceed pre-pandemic levels.

However, the health care system that returns to “normal” in 12 months will likely be different from the system of February 2020. A significant number of financially-weak hospitals and clinical practices will have closed their doors or merged with strong local institutions that have the capital to ride out the pandemic storm. There will be fewer primary care practices, community health centers, rural hospitals, independent small and moderate size hospitals, inner-city safety-net hospitals, and money-losing services of all types. Large systems will have grown larger and more dominant in local markets. The weak will be weaker and the strong stronger.

The market power of dominant local health care organizations may grant them even more leverage to negotiate higher prices from local payers in the future. Patients will have reduced choice of providers. The national capacity to offer effective primary care — the key to prevention and control of chronic illness — will be diminished, at least in the short term.

Scenario 2: The Catastrophe
Little works. What does isn’t implemented. The current failure to impose NPIs in the South and West persists, and even in areas like the Northeast, an exhausted populace balks at local shutdowns required to address outbreaks of novel coronavirus imported from elsewhere in the United States. No treatments more potent than Remdesivir and Dexamethasone materialize; nor does a vaccine that is safe and effective. The pandemic rages unchecked in current hotspots and reignites in the North and East. The U.S. health care system is overrun by Covid-19 cases to the exclusion of most other care. Field hospitals spring up everywhere. but demand still exceeds capacity. The United States steadily exhausts its supply of health care workers, personal protective equipment (PPE), testing supplies, and drugs. As the economy struggles, millions more Americans lose employment and their employer sponsored insurance. Population herd immunity proves illusory or far in the future.

This dismal picture suggests that demand for health care services other than Covid-19 care will remain at fractions of pre-pandemic levels for the foreseeable future. Compounding the reluctance of high-risk groups to visit health care facilities will be the swelling ranks of the uninsured. The result will be bankruptcy of large numbers of provider organizations and practices absent hundreds of billions of dollars of ongoing governmental support.

Such aid will constitute the creeping nationalization of the health care system. The failure of employer-sponsored insurance may create the national will for universal public insurance. The health care system that emerges after five years could resemble European models of public ownership and insurance more than the current largely-private enterprise.

Scenario 3: The Patchwork Middle
By September 1, half of states have effectively implemented NPIs, but adherence erodes over time in many areas because of partisanship, fatalism, or fatigue. An effective anti-viral regimen is available by January 1, which lowers mortality among high-risk groups to less than 1% among the healthy elderly and less than 10% among those with underlying conditions. An apparently safe vaccine is available on July 1, 2021, but it is only 60% effective in preventing infection and requires an annual booster. Because of its low efficacy and known side effects (equivalent to flu vaccine) or a lack of trust in the vaccine, only about 50% of Americans choose to get vaccinated over the following six months.

For the health care system, the implications are highly variable geographically. In areas with effective NPI regimens and high vaccination rates, viral transmission rates are very low by the end of 2021, but localized outbreaks are an ongoing threat. Vulnerable groups feel safe and gradually resume use of health care services starting in the fall of 2021, and by the spring of 2022, volumes of health care services have reached a steady state but are still 5% to 10% below pre-pandemic levels because of persisting sporadic viral transmission. Some local areas are tantalizingly close to achieving a localized dream scenario.

But in other locations, with poor NPI compliance and vaccination rates, the situation more closely resembles the catastrophic scenario. There, demand for services remains persistently low and provider bankruptcies and closures are widespread. For locations in-between, demand settles in at about 20% below pre-pandemic levels for the foreseeable future.

Overall the American health care system is significantly less capable than before the pandemic but is not as widely impaired as in the catastrophic scenario. In some areas, health care providers are heavily dependent on government aid and downsize dramatically to contain expenses; in other areas, the system is stable but consolidated with diminished primary care capacity, as in the Dream scenario.

The striking thing about these three scenarios is that under any of them, the U.S. health care system emerges very different from its pre-pandemic state and is hobbled in different ways. Even under the dream scenario, the loss of safety net institutions and increased inequities will require some type of government response. For advocates of European-style publicly-managed health care systems with universal coverage, the catastrophic scenario may offer the prospect of a more equitable and potentially more efficient system emerging from the ashes. However, the price of failing to control the pandemic in lives and treasure will be huge.

Under any likely future, the health care system will emerge from the pandemic less capable and smaller. The federal government can mitigate some adverse effects by supporting now — in its pending stimulus package — the critical services that are most at risk: primary care practices and safety-net institutions, including community health centers, critical access hospitals, and other providers in rural areas.

It can also confront the growing problem of non-competitive health care markets that will likely grow in number under almost any scenario. This would involve more aggressive enforcement of anti-trust authorities and/or the regulation of prices where competition has ceased to exist. For the catastrophic scenario, the government will have to plan massive investments to shore up the health care system on a scale never before contemplated in the United States.

When it comes to the future of a health system grappling with an unprecedented crisis, hoping for the best is not a strategy. It would be wise to act now to minimize long-term damage to the nation’s health care enterprise.
[1597 words]

Source:  Harvard Business Review


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发表于 2020-7-26 22:47:00 发自手机 Web 版 | 显示全部楼层
T2   3'06
T3   2'51
T4   2'27
发表于 2020-7-27 12:20:11 | 显示全部楼层
3 scenarios for how the pandemic could change U.S. Health Care
Based on three factors which are critical to the post-pandemic future, the author assumes 3 scenarios that the world may evolve in terms of the pandemic. And then he analyzes the 3 scenarios in detail including what the world will be and what governments need to do.

Potent: very powerful, forceful or effective
Posit: 假想
发表于 2020-7-27 14:00:28 | 显示全部楼层
The speaker is a lifelong traveler. He became a travel writer. Bring magic to the friend and his own life with a more appreciate eye.
Not our experience make our lives, but how we do with them. Sitting still is the trip lasting for his life.
America actually work fewer hour but we feel we are working more than before.
Meditation will bring a clearer thinking and more mental intelligence.
Empty space is one of the most luxuries. He finds a second home in his mind.
One of the benefit from travelling is to bring stillness into the motion.

Time2 [480 words] 3:32
Physical intelligence will help us be more positive and feel rewarded to engage by changing the chemical inside of us through activities and arts.

Time3 [410 words] 3:03
Some techniques will help us to improve the strength.
-        Grounding yourself. Make yourself feel more power, confident.
-        Pacing the breathing. Pay attention to the breath. Train yourself to gain a healthier breath through 10+ minutes daily breath training, with a steady count in and count off.

Time4 [216 words] 1:03
Lack of motivation can be the result of diminished inspiration, especially if we are following the same routine.
-        Walk more
-        Physical inflexibility leads to mental inflexibility. Loosening tension in the body will relief the stress
-        With team
-        Focus on the beautiful art and nature

Time5 [413 words] 2:30
Resilience is the ability to recover from the stress, pressure, failure and hard time, to remain optimistic, to develop a learning mindset and to increase productivity.
-        Keep the level of oxytocin ( organization share information broadly and intentionally build relationships )
-        Get enough break and rest

Time6 [469 words] 3:10
Endurance is the capability of planning, perseverance. Like walking through a long tunnel to keep the wall wide and the light on.
-        Allocate the first 2 hours in the morning doing the key tasks
-        Self-appreciation and encouragement
-        Aligned with values and core purpose
-        Language

Part III: Obstacle [1579 words] 10:27

It will be certain that the healthcare system after the pandemic will change. A research has been done by doing the scenario analysis by making three different cases with 3 key variables including the implementation of the NPI,anti-viral therapies and vaccine.   There are three cases have been discussed, the dream case, middle case and catastrophe case.
发表于 2020-7-27 15:45:52 | 显示全部楼层
T2 3'45
T3 3'07
T4 1'24
T5 2'43
T6 2'48

The passage introduces how to manage physical intelligence to enhance motivation which contributes to higher productivity. Four elements are mentioned, and they are strength, flexibility, resilience and endurance.
- Strength:
Ground yourself and practice paced breath.
Try to walk (even around the house) instead of sitting for the whole day, as some innovative ideas come out when people are walking
Identify and try to relax the body parts which are tense
Build support network
Find a balance between pushing yourself and recovery
Allocate the first one or two hours in the morning to the most important tasks
Be aware to appreciate yourself for hard work/achievement
(For teams):use language as a power to encourage each other
发表于 2020-7-27 16:27:29 | 显示全部楼层
vinago 发表于 2020-7-27 12:20
3 scenarios for how the pandemic could change U.S. Health Care
Based on three factors wh ...

发表于 2020-7-27 22:19:17 | 显示全部楼层
发表于 2020-7-28 14:28:15 | 显示全部楼层
OB 13'39
The passage analyzes how the health care system of the U.S will be changed during post-pandemic of Covid-19, and the assumptions are made based on the following 3 scenarios.

1. Dream Scenario
In this scenario, it is assumed that people in high risk groups start to feel safe. Moreover, the number of inpatient and outpatient in healthcare centers tend to be equal. However, the situation of the healthcare system is not exactly the same as the one during pre-pandemic period. More financially-weak hospitals will face bankruptcy or have to be merged with large healthcare organizations. In this case, public will have fewer choices of healthcare providers.

2. Catastrophic Scenario
Under this scenario, the large healthcare organizations exhaust with the demand for healthcare continue to exceed the capacity, and they may finally become bankrupt. The healthcare system in the U.S. may become the public-owned one instead of owning by private enterprises like it used to be.

3. The Patchwork Middle
The situation for healthcare system is highly geographically variable. In the areas which are under the scenario similar to the 'dream scenario', the demand for the local healthcare services may start to resume. However, it is anticipated that the demand will be 5% to 10% lower than the pre-pandemic period. In other areas resembling the 'catastrophic scenario', the demand for healthcare services can still remain to be low steadily, which can further cause widespread closure of many healthcare organizations.

It is suggested that 'hope for the best' is not enough, the U.S. government need to take actions to reduce long-term damages caused to the healthcare system by Covid-19.
发表于 2020-7-29 15:22:35 | 显示全部楼层
About American pandemic authority posing the issue"3 Scenarios for How the Pandemic Could Change U.S. Health Care"and then give three scenarios,they are
1.        A dream case in which everything goes as well as could reasonably be expected.
2.        A catastrophic case in which everything goes badly.
3.        A middle case in which some things go well, but others don’t.
The striking thing about these three scenarios is that under any of them, the U.S. health care system emerges very different from its pre-pandemic state and is hobbled in different ways.
发表于 2020-7-31 23:56:25 | 显示全部楼层
Confusion reigns concerning the future course and consequences
ride out the pandemic storm
Compounding the reluctance of high-risk groups to visit health care facilities will be the swelling ranks of the uninsured.
adherence erodes over time in many areas because of partisanship
shore up the health care system on a scale never before contemplated in the United States
When it comes to the future of a health system grappling with an unprecedented crisis
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