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[阅读小分队] 【Native Speaker 每日训练计划】No.2850 经管

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发表于 2020-7-24 12:46:09 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
内容:Angela Li 编辑:Winona Wu
Wechat ID: NativeStudy  / Weibo: http://weibo.com/u/3476904471




Part I: Speaker

Question Time!
Stacey Vanek Smith & Cardiff Garcia, Jul 2020

Source: NPR
https://www.npr.org/2020/07/22/894414838/question-time
[Rephrase 1, 09:41]


Part II: Speed


The Great Potential Of Decentralized Finance in 2020

A look into what distinguishes decentralized finance from traditional finance, and some potential use cases for decentralized applications
EMMA GASSEL, JUL 21, 2020

[Time 2]
Before Ethereum there was Bitcoin, and all hopes were put into the community and its capabilities to develop the network. When Ether entered the game, it opened up a new realm of possibilities for its decentralized applications. Its smart contracts and tokenization capabilities started a conversation about the next steps for traditional finance and how it can take advantage of this new technology. However, it is important to know the difference between traditional financial tools and those built on decentralized networks. Let us delve into what distinguishes decentralized finance (DeFi) from traditional finance, and also discuss some potential use cases for dApps (decentralized applications) and the current regulatory issues related to DeFi.

Just a year ago, when DeFi Pulse started publishing statistics on the monetary value locked in DeFi, the total amount was $276 million. Today, nearly $2 billion is locked in the DeFi market.

The groundwork for more potential capabilities of DeFi instruments has been laid. As Chris Burniske from venture capital firm Placeholder noted: “If you think DeFi will have a smaller impact on ETH than ICOs, you aren't paying attention. The ICO boom showcased Ethereum's ability to perform one financial service: early-stage capital formation. DeFi will showcase Ethereum's ability to perform all financial services.”

During these uncertain times, the adoption rate of innovative banking solutions is increasing rapidly. Therefore, the current economic challenges facing countries, companies and individuals could lead to better solutions for the future.

Traditional Apps vs dApps: Application vs Protocols

What’s the big difference between the applications that we use daily, like Twitter, Instagram and Facebook, and decentralized applications, like asset management tools and exchanges? Previously, protocols such as HTTP built data directly on the application layer. Investing in applications produced higher returns than investing in protocol technologies. This is why most popular applications consist of ‘fat’ applications and ‘thin’ protocols. In blockchain, this relationship is reversed, with most of the value concentrated at the shared ‘fat’ protocol layer while the ‘thin’ application layer provides a limited interface service.
[335words]

[Time 3]

The shared protocol layer and open network is what makes decentralized applications stand out. Big corporations monopolize their user data by capturing users with their interface. Most social network applications do not share any data between each other, which forces users to stick to their favorite interfaces. Meanwhile, blockchain networks can’t own a certain interface because they are each built independently, using many of the same protocols.

Existing infrastructure makes developing these applications easier and cheaper, which, in turn, leaves more room for updates and releases. As Joel Monergo from Placeholder explained: “The relationship between protocols and applications is reversed in the blockchain application stack. Value concentrates at the shared protocol layer and only a fraction of that value is distributed along at the applications layer. It's a stack with 'fat' protocols and 'thin' applications.”

It is also important to remember that the industry will thrive if the community grows and attracts innovative specialists. Crypto expert and successful blockchain entrepreneur, Alexander Salnikov, considers this influx of talent key to the future health of the industry: “It’s not just about putting together protocols and interfaces. What we need in that the DeFi space has more talented and motivated entrepreneurs. Opportunities for businesses to generate profit will attract more talent and encourage further developments which are beneficial for both the protocols and their interfaces.”

DApps Functionality

According to defiprime, currently, out of the 205 DeFi projects listed, 193 are built on Ethereum. The largest chunk of this market consists of lending dApps. Some platforms also enable users to enter into leveraged positions, utilizing tokenized margin lending and trading. Through smart contracts, lenders and borrowers can interact directly, making lending easier and faster. The adoption of such technology will inevitably bring to light the issues within the traditional global banking systems and offer an alternative, decentralized solution.
The more funds get channeled into the DeFi sector, the more diversity it brings to the ecosystem. While lending and credit systems, asset management tools and other crypto-finance applications dominate the space, there are unlimited possibilities of what dApps can bring to the table. The architecture that allows outsourcing various tasks to shared networks makes building new applications fast and cheap which is great for startups.

“DeFi projects have great compatibility with each other which means that new features can be developed and then implemented into existing and new services. All of DeFi was built with these tools, these so-called ‘money legos’, that can be put together in any way, because the technology is open, programmable and flexible,” Alexander adds.
[425 words]

[Time 4]

Getting paid for freelance work and reaching agreements with freelance specialists is also made easy and safe with smart contracts. Ethlance is a blockchain job board that allows payments only in cryptocurrency. There is also a crypto-collectibles world where artists can tokenize their work and the buyer can display it in their virtual gallery. Unlike traditional cryptocurrencies, these tokens are non-fungible which means that every asset is unique or limited in quantity. There are already marketplaces for these collectibles such as Rarible, and VR galleries where they are displayed such as Cryptovoxels.

Regulation

The blockchain and crypto industries still face many challenges due to regulatory concerns. Completely decentralized applications raise flags with regulators over fraudulent transactions and money laundering matters. There is also some uneasiness regarding all the responsibility put upon developers in the decentralized application field.

With mainstream institutional giants venturing into DeFi, users are getting a broader variety of services and providers. However, at this moment, only custodial wallets can be reliably regulated because of their standard KYC/AML procedures.

Simultaneously, the current regulatory flux could provide a perfect opportunity to enter the market. Ivan Starinin, experienced blockchain entrepreneur, who has made a name for himself with several successful projects, agrees: “There is currently a lack of regulation that creates concerns for those who want to invest large amounts into the market. The same pattern we saw with blockchain and crypto, where regulation trailed behind technology, is happening now with DeFi. However, this lack of regulation means we are only at the initial stage of development and there are plenty of opportunities for higher revenue and ecosystem development”.

The Future of Finance is Decentralized

Some community members have already dubbed 2020 the year of the “DeFi Renaissance.” Amidst the global health and economic crisis, stablecoins have risen in popularity bringing new institutional and individual players into the market. DeFi token values have surged by 200per cent since the beginning of the year. The opportunities for startups using this technology are endless which is promising for the DeFi ecosystem diversification and growth. New game-changing DeFi applications are going to emerge, built at a lesser cost and primed to cross over into the mass market.
[364 words]
Source: Entrepreneur
https://www.entrepreneur.com/article/353588


Let’s ditch self-improvement and focus on effective cooperation
AB BANERJEE, JUL 1, 2020

[Time 5]
Trumpeted as the step-by-step guide to making you a ‘kickass boss’ and management luminary, 'Radical Candor’ is a new school of management thinking that encourages leaders to learn to challenge more directly while also communicating empathy. The brainchild of executive coach and ex-Google operations lead, Kim Scott, it’s difficult to argue with the sentiment. The problems, though, are its misplaced priorities. Radical Candor places individual self-improvement at the cornerstone of its strategy. Though important, it risks managers losing sight of their broader corporate objective.

Another theory gaining ground on the US West Coast is the ‘ fixed & growth mindset’ theory, which faces the same issue. Stanford academic, Carol Dweck argues people have one of two mindsets. With a ‘fixed mindset’, individuals perceive their basic abilities and talents to be fixed traits. Allocated with this rigid set of abilities from birth, they focus their efforts on looking smart all the time and never appearing dumb.

With a ‘growth mindset’ the opposite is the case. Individuals believe that that their talents and abilities can be developed and enhanced through hard work and learning. Dweck argues we should all aspire to the ‘growth mindset’ and sets out a programme to adapt our thinking accordingly.

In developing their theories both Scott and Dweck are too focussed on the individual. Businesses exist to provide a product or service to their clients or customers. To deliver this effectively, performance must be optimised in the three key areas, dubbed the ‘holy trinity’: productivity growth, employee engagement, and client satisfaction. Though important, self-improvement isn’t the central factor driving each of these. Rather, effective cooperation is.
The ‘Cooperation Mindset’

In the natural environment, evolutionary success is determined by adaptive ability, underpinned by cohesive organisational function at either an individual or collective level. Much the same as in nature, improving cooperation so that individuals and teams within an organisation can adapt in an agile, real-time way to a fast-changing external environment is the critical determinant behind commercial success. The more effective you are at fulfilling customer needs the more likely you are to succeed.
[345 words]

[Time 6]

To deliver effective cooperation requires realtime feedback and intelligence to inform understanding both of your colleagues’ needs internally and your customers’ needs externally. Though distinct, colleagues and customers must be treated as one. Irrespective of who the end recipient may be, the output should be considered as part of the broader organisational function instead of in isolation for an individual’s own self-improvement. With this ‘cooperation mindset’ in place, having the ability to gauge your performance, either individually or as part of a team, is critical. Without that feedback you’re stumbling alone in the dark, unable to determine what actions you’re doing well or badly.
Actionable Objective Feedback

While driving feedback is at the heart of ‘Radical Candor’, the nature of the feedback delivered is also important and illustrates a further shortcoming to the approach. Empathetic or not, direct feedback is redundant and can even be harmful if it’s subjective and unactionable.

In their recent book ‘ Nine Lies About Work’: A Freethinking Leader’s Guide to the Real World, leadership coaches, Marcus Buckingham and Ashley Goodall, argue that subjective feedback is so riven with bias toward the particular individual that it becomes worthless. This subjectivity is incapable of being averaged out even when crowdsourced and so instead just becomes systemic.

It is the same issue that befalls another popular and noteworthy team performance and employee feedback concept: ‘ Radical Transparency’. Conceived by hedge-fund mogul, Ray Dalio, at its heart is the belief in taking things people would typically hide, particularly mistakes, problems and weaknesses and putting them on the table to be openly and collectively scrutinised. The concept is intended to translate to the adoption of actions and approaches that ‘radically’ increase the openness of organisational processes, data and, ultimately, improved decision-making.

Though they diagnose the fundamental shortcoming in both ‘Radical Candor’ and ‘Radical Transparency’, Buckingham and Goodall’s prescribed remedy is for individuals to abandon delivery of any negative subjective criticism and instead focus delivery on positive feedback. Essentially, they’re telling people not to worry about what they’re doing wrong because they won’t be able to do anything about it, so instead they should focus on what they’re doing right and keep working on that. They deny managers the ability to express what they need from their staff for them to fulfil their obligations to the wider function.
[387 words]

[The Rest]

While this may be positive for perceived self-improvement, it offers little hope for fostering cooperation. If the customer is never asked for feedback on what they’re looking for and is instead asked repeatedly to spell out only the virtues of an individual’s performance then this offers a very narrow form of feedback that fails to drive toward the overall organisational function of maximising productivity.

The Holy Grail


The Holy Grail is the provision of a solution that fosters the ‘cooperation mindset’ and that allows managers and co-workers not to have to shy away from negative feedback, but that distils all feedback, including negative subjective feedback, into quantifiable actionable information for the target individual or teams. Doing so will deliver feedback necessary to drive cooperation and organisational performance by optimising productivity growth, employee engagement, and client satisfaction.

Helpfully, technology offers a possible solution. Similar to the two-way feedback function on commonly used apps, such as Airbnb and Uber that each allow users to rate one another, dynamic feedback platforms allow users to give and receive real-time online feedback on performance from multiple stakeholders, including bosses, co-workers, other teams, even those external to their own organisation.

Crucially, any feedback submitted must be constructive, actionable, and easy to interpret. To achieve this, quantitative score-based solutions are complemented with the option to supplement ratings with additional text feedback. To maintain focus on team performance rather than just the individual, more sophisticated systems can frame feedback within the context of a team as a whole through the provision of a single, easy to interpret score that team members can monitor easily and in real-time. This score is based upon ratings and feedback from any of the team's key stakeholders.

Ultimately, this ‘team score’ helps to remove silos, encourage transparency and foster cooperation. By focussing attention away from self-improvement, striving instead for collective cooperation and not shying away from subjective negative feedback, but focussing on making it meaningful and constructive we can improve both our individual and organisational performance as a whole.
[336 words]

Source: Management.Issues

https://www.management-issues.com/opinion/7407/lets-ditch-self-improvement-and-focus-on-effective-cooperation/




Part III: Obstacle


5 Tips for Managing an Underperformer — Remotely
LIZ KISLIK, JUL 16, 2020

[Paraphrase 7]
While a majority of employers believe that that their employees will return to their workplaces after Covid-19’s impact diminishes, working from home isn’t going to disappear. The reality is that a huge number of people were already working from home (almost 10 million workers in the U.S. in 2019); that number is only likely to rise post-pandemic. As the manager of a remote team, you can’t afford to ignore underperformance from remote workers, whether they’re temporarily at home, working in local branch offices, or half a world away.

Although you might assume that managing an underperformer in a remote environment would be more challenging (who wants to have a series of difficult conversations over Zoom?), there’s actually an upside. You may actually be more effective in handling the situation because you have to plan and structure your interactions, rather than catching up in the hallway or waiting for them to stop by when you’re in the office. Here are five things you can do to help remote underperformers improve their game.

Revisit your expectations. Take the opportunity to reconsider what you want most from the employee, and why you feel you’re not getting it. Start by reviewing your recent directives, and whether your communications about what’s expected have been clear and consistent from the beginning. This is something you do with underperformers in any context, but when you don’t see the employee in person, it’s even more important to ask yourself whether your statements have been ambiguous. Part of this process is separating out whether your dissatisfaction is with their work products, or with the way they deliver.


If their style or approach is the problem, check to see if you’re expecting them to work the way you do. If that’s the case, let go of those expectations and dispassionately assess their real strengths and capacities for contributing to the team’s work. When one of the senior executives I work with came to terms with the fact that he didn’t care for one of his subordinates, it turned out that the remote relationship worked better because he could pay more attention to her output and the praise he heard about her from other leaders, and less to his own biased reactions.

If you suspect the underperformer’s difficulties come from insufficient experience, specific skill deficits, or a lack of business or organizational acumen, consider whether they need training, or to partner with a more experienced colleague. This may be more challenging in a remote environment, but it’s too risky to wait until you’re back in the office to provide the support they need.

Learn more about them. Even if they’ve been on your team for a while, it’s important to ask about their goals and what they care about, as these things change as circumstances evolve. Plus, you don’t have the benefit of casual, in-person contact to pick up details about family, hobbies, or past work successes. Then, modify your management approach to match their needs. For example, you might learn that they miss working side-by-side with colleagues and would perform better if they were assigned to projects that involved more regular interaction.

If you’re not familiar with their remote set-up and schedule, ask. Some team members may prefer strict deadlines to structure their often-interrupted workdays; others may benefit from more flexible deadlines than usual to help them deal with the additional pressures of working from home. Take their home obligations like schooling time or elder care into account, according them the same respect you would regular work meetings.

Level with them and be specific. You may not be in the same room, but providing feedback is still a requirement. Many people who aren’t doing well have a vague feeling that something is wrong, but don’t really know which of their behaviors aren’t working. For example, telling a team leader that they need to “be a better listener” doesn’t help them understand specifically what they need to do differently. It’s much more helpful to explain that when they turn away during video conferences or change the subject while team members are speaking, the team loses trust and confidence in them. The feedback gives them the opportunity to actively practice modifying those behaviors.

Help them learn how to improve their own performance. As much as possible, use questions to encourage them to self-diagnose  and to project into their own future: “How will this experience set you up to do better in the future?” I often ask coaching clients “Why do you think I’m asking you this?” to encourage them to reach their own conclusions, rather than telling them what I have observed, which doesn’t trigger the same kind of “aha” that self-discovery does. This will help you avoid micromanaging, which is a significant temptation when you’re trying to be extremely clear about expectations.

Stay in close enough contact. Keep in mind that a remote underperformer can’t just drop in to check on things or “take your temperature.” It’s on you as their manager to stay in regular touch and to keep them in the loop. Don’t assume that no news is good news. After you’ve given an employee candid feedback and they don’t hear from you, they can start to worry that you’re ignoring them because you’ve written them off, and their performance can deteriorate further. Schedule regular meetings to talk about their progress. When a VP learned that one of her reports thought she was “ghosting” him, we came up with a consistent schedule of one full update and two quick touch-bases each week for a few months until the relationship was on a stronger footing.

If you’ve asked them to keep you up to date on their progress, make clear how you want them to do that. If they tend to use email, but you’re awash in email and respond better to texts or Slack messages, tell told them that. And don’t rely only on video meetings, where the lack of true eye contact can make it seem like you’re getting nonverbal clues when you’re not. If you’re concerned that you’re not getting a good read on your team member’s state of mind, plan to have at least some of your interactions by phone and listen carefully. The tone of their voice may give you more clues about what needs intervention.

It’s not easy to work with a remote employee who isn’t performing well, particularly when you can’t sit down together and have a conversation. But using specific, road-tested techniques to help them improve will strengthen not only their performance, but their relationship with you as well. [1097 words]
Source: Harvard Business Review
https://hbr.org/2020/07/5-tips-for-managing-an-underperformer-remotely




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发表于 2020-7-24 16:16:21 | 显示全部楼层
Topic1: About Garbage
Question: Now, people eat more at home and more trash is produced at home. How does this affect waste? How trash company deal with it?
Answer:
` Waste management company who deal with home waste are overwhelmed, companies which deal with commercial are suffered because many companies are closed. But overall garbage are down because so many companies are closed.
`Dangerous to workers who collect trash (toxic, chemical, coronavirus)  have protection equipment
Topic2: Fund Black business
Question:
1.     How fund Black business?
2.     Is this way work and Is this a good way to help them?
Answer:
1.     Only fund company with diversified policy  identify  assess risk and reward (like normal investment)
2.     Invest in fund = own shares in Black company. Not directly invest in Black company.
Topic3: Gig company 零工经济
Question: Can we measure current Gig economy?
Answer:
`No. hard to measure it is growing or not.
Because: gig is unlike formal employment (homemaking)  no way to measure
`Know: now 14% gig worker claim unemployment benefits. ?? > 2/5
`now more people are doing gig worker than before under coronavirus.
发表于 2020-7-24 22:53:11 | 显示全部楼层
showcase
delve into
regulatory
T2:3’25 reverse relationship,so blockchain aims to the fact that supply overtake demand.
发表于 2020-7-25 00:53:35 发自 iPhone | 显示全部楼层
OB:9’33[1097W]
发表于 2020-7-25 01:40:08 发自手机 Web 版 | 显示全部楼层
T2 1:45
T3 2:13
T4 1:34
T5 1:36
T6 1:42
Obstacle 5:11
发表于 2020-7-25 09:57:07 | 显示全部楼层
T2 2'31''
T3 2'54''
T4 2'29''
T5 2'21''
T6 2'36''
The rest 2'32''
T7 5'31''
发表于 2020-7-25 13:30:49 | 显示全部楼层
T2 2'32
T3 3'18
T4 2'09
发表于 2020-7-25 14:09:57 | 显示全部楼层
Speak
About Garbage
Q1: WFH has the impact on the waste. How the waste company handle all the distributions?
Eating at home more, throwing more garbage at home. Garbage is 25% higher than the same time last year. Workers from the waste company are overwhelming.
Overall garbage data assumed to be down. Dangerous work worth our shout out.
Covid19 also add more risk for those essential workers
Q2: how the fund work? Is it good way to invest on Black owned business?
The fund will invest the company has strong racial and ethnic diversity policy in place. First, identify the company and list them including 10 criteria.
Amazon, Microsoft and apple. Useful online resources for reference
Q3: Does employment rate includes gig economy contract measured?
No. Gig economy is hard to measure. Not done by formal work contract. 14 million gig workers are acclaiming unemployment insurance benefits.  About 2 out of 5 people acclaim unemployment insurance benefits are gig workers.
A lot of gig worker are now struggling.

Time2 [335 words] 2:51
Defi vs traditional finance
Money locked in the Defi increased from millions into 2 billion now. The fat and thin of the layer got reversed in the Defi compared to the traditional app.

Time3 [425 words] 3:21
Shared protocol and open network are the value of the Defi.
More fund raised leading to the flourish of the industry and also attract more innovative entrepreneur will be the critical.
It could start fast and cheep thanks for the open network. Meanwhile it could be scaled up easily and updates more feature along with the growth.
Time4 [364 words] 3:09
The current lack of regulation status shows the industry are still in the initial staging facing big potential.
The token value surged 200% compared to the beginning of the year.  The future of the finance is decentralized.
Time5 [345 words] 2:44
Theory one: radical candor is the new school of management thinking to challenge more directly and at the same time communicate empathy.
Theory two: fixed mindset and growth mindset
Developed theory: holy trinity including productive growth, employee self-improvement and client satisfaction

Time6 [387 words] 3:04
Time7 [336 words] 1:38
Part III: Obstacle [1097 words] 7:09

5 tips for managing an underperformer-remotely
发表于 2020-7-25 22:27:43 | 显示全部楼层
T2  2’49
T3  3’27
T4  3’02
发表于 2020-7-25 23:02:48 | 显示全部楼层
OB:7:35
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