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[阅读小分队] 【Native Speaker 每日训练计划】No.2824经管

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发表于 2020-7-13 13:48:13 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
内容:cherish huang 编辑:Gavin huang   

Wechat ID: NativeStudy / Weibo: http://weibo.com/u/3476904471



Part I: Speaker

Why thinking you're ugly is bad for you

About 10,000 people a month Google the phrase, “Am I ugly?” Meaghan Ramsey of the Dove Self-Esteem Project has a feeling that many of them are young girls. In a deeply unsettling talk, she walks us through the surprising impacts of low body and image confidence—from lower grade point averages to greater risk-taking with drugs and alcohol. And then shares the key things all of us can do to disrupt this reality.

Source: TED
https://www.ted.com/talks/meaghan_ramsey_why_thinking_you_re_ugly_is_bad_for_you#t-2121

[Rephrase 1  |  12:02]




Part II: Speed

Are You Open to Opposing Viewpoints? 3 Tips for Improving Critical Thinking.
By   Joel B. Carnevale      |    2 July 2020
Strategies you can use right now to open yourself up to different ideas and reap the benefits of critical thinking.

[Time 2]
The ability to change one’s mind when confronted with new evidence or information — or better yet, the willingness to actively seek out opposing viewpoints — is an important quality needed to be successful in both business and in life. It is crucial for leaders who want to ensure their organization remains innovative and necessary for society to function optimally. All too often, however, we can become insulated from information that runs counter to our existing beliefs.

Breaking this type of thinking should be a priority for anyone interested in enhancing their critical thinking skills. After all, when you insulate yourself from opposing viewpoints, you are potentially depriving yourself of information needed to make a more informed decision. Toward that end, here are a few strategies you can begin incorporating right away that can help you become more open to opposing viewpoints and enhance your ability to think critically.

1. Be willing to question your current view of reality
Take a moment to reflect on some of your most deeply held beliefs and opinions. As you do so, try to be intentionally broad, accounting for the full spectrum of social, political, and organizational issues that comprise your current view of reality. For example, you may reflect on your beliefs regarding the nature and source of inequality present in society, the trade policies most conducive to advancing a country’s economic interest, or how to effectively lead during moments of crisis.

As you take stock of your own constellation of views and beliefs, what is the likelihood that each reflects a fully informed opinion? More pointedly, assuming that there is some truth to be known about each of these issues, such that the views you hold may be more or less factual, consistent with reality, or conducive to human flourishing, what is the likelihood that you just so happen to hold the correct view on each one of them?

An honest and humble assessment of this question should open your mind to the possibility of your own fallibility and the value in exposing yourself to arguments that run counter to your current perspective. Accordingly, a critical first step toward becoming more open to opposing points of view requires a sense of humility, which constitutes a willingness to learn from others and an acknowledgment of your own limitations and fallibility. Luckily, this is a quality that can be developed and nurtured through practice.
[398 words]

[Time 3]
2. Regularly seek out counter-information
Simply recognizing your own fallibility, while necessary, is not a sufficient condition for becoming more open and tolerant to opposing viewpoints. Indeed, it is all too easy to get into the habit of narrowly focusing our attention on information that aligns with our pre-existing views. Organizational leaders, for example, can easily find themselves in insulated information silos, such as when they surround themselves with sycophants eager to express opinions their leader wants to hear. Likewise, within the general public, the increasing prevalence of media curated for each individuals’ idiosyncratic interests and preferences makes it easier than ever to remain oblivious to information and evidence that runs counter to one’s existing beliefs. Overcoming such tendencies can be exceptionally difficult, especially when the beliefs and opinions we hold are highly entrenched or become tied to our identity.

Given the mental discomfort that can arise when we encounter information contrary to our current views, a willingness to seek out alternative perspectives takes a conscious effort. Identifying your dominant or “default” point of view and making a habit out of consuming information that runs somewhat opposite of this reference point is therefore a crucial next step. For example, as a leader, you may reflect on how you view your current organizational processes and procedures and actively seek out sources that are critical of such practices. A good illustration comes from the open office space movement. Over the last few decades, many leaders have embraced open office concepts in their organizations, believing that such environments enhance teamwork and creativity. Yet, conventional wisdom regarding the benefits of open office plans is quite disconnected from the science.

Importantly, such advice can (and should) be incorporated into all aspects of your life, not merely those issues of an organizational nature. For example, if you naturally lean toward one end of the political spectrum, it can be helpful to regularly consume information from media outlets that lean opposite of your own political viewpoint. You may not agree with everything you’re exposed to — nor should you — but you will undoubtedly identify blind spots in your own thinking and may even strengthen your own convictions by understanding not only the best and most convincing arguments for your position but also those against it.

3. Become aware of how you feel in the moment
Even with the best intentions to remain receptive to opposing viewpoints, putting this mindset into practice can be exceptionally challenging. Oftentimes, the moment we encounter information that lies in contrast to our own beliefs, we run the risk of being carried away by intense affective reactions that can thwart a genuine effort to understand the opposing viewpoint. For example, we know from research that when we encounter morally-charged situations, we often make quick, instinctive judgments based on emotion. Only after the fact do we justify how we came to the evaluation in the first place. More troubling, this process often occurs below the level of awareness, leaving us to (mistakenly) think that the judgment we’ve made was the result of a rational, thoughtful process. Accordingly, it is important to remain mindful of these processes and to regularly monitor how you feel in the moment to ensure your judgment of the opposing evidence is based on reason and not on unbridled emotion.

There is value in exposing yourself to arguments that run counter to your current perspective. To reap the benefits, be sure to acknowledge your own fallibility, seek out opposing information, and remain mindful of your emotions when evaluating the evidence.  
[588 words]

Source: Entrepreneur
https://www.entrepreneur.com/article/346101


I Refuse to Participate in the Recession!
By    Ivan Misner      |    3 July 2020
Mindset has a lot to do with how one navigates a tough economy successfully.  

[Time 4]
I started BNI in 1985. Since then, I’ve navigated my company through three recessions, and we have now entered our fourth  since the mid-'80s. Along the way, I’ve learned that mindset has a lot to do with how one navigates a tough economy successfully.

This first became clear to me when I was at a large networking event during the recession of the early '90s. As I walked around the room, I discovered that almost everyone was completely fixated on how horrible things were. It was incredibly depressing. I found myself meandering until I saw someone standing in a corner observing all the distraught business people in attendance.

I walked up to him, introduced myself and asked him what he did.  He told me he was in real estate. I prepared myself for the onslaught of horror stories, but instead, he said that things were going really well for him.   

Naturally, I was surprised and replied, "You said you were in real estate, right?"

"Yes," he said.
I asked, "The real estate market has dropped significantly here, hasn’t it?"
"Yes," he said with a slight grin.
"And you're having a good year?"
"I'm actually having my best year ever!"
"Your best year!" I said in amazement. After thinking for a moment, I asked him, "Is this your first year in real estate?"
"No," he replied with a laugh. "I've been in real estate for almost 10 years."

I asked him how he could be doing so well, given the condition of the economy. He reached into his pocket and pulled out a big button that read: "I Absolutely Refuse to Participate in the Recession!"
[274 words]

[Time 5]
“That’s it? You have a button that says, 'I absolutely refuse to participate in the recession,' so business is booming?" I exclaimed.

“Well, it’s not just the button; it’s the attitude that goes along with it,” he told me. “You see,” he went on to explain, “during difficult times, there are almost always opportunities that exist, and if you want to succeed, you have to focus on those opportunities.”

“OK,” I said. “School me a little on this. What kind of opportunities can there really be right now when the real estate market has taken a nose dive?”

“Two big ones,” he replied. “First, there are real estate investors who buy properties to rent and lease. I’m going to them and encouraging, ‘Don’t be one of those people who come to me a few years from now and say that you should have bought that property when I showed it to you. Let me show you a duplex that you can get at a steal on today’.” He paused to take a sip of his water, and then continued, “In addition, there are still first-time home buyers in a down economy. I’m going to them right now and explaining that they couldn’t afford a house a year ago, but they can today. Now is the time to buy while the market is low.”

He went on to add that he was selling more real estate than ever while almost everyone in that room was obsessed with the economy and the drop in prices. And yet, he was making a killing.

He wrapped up by telling me the button represented the attitude and the action that one must pursue when times are tough. He said he was at ease with the recession because many of the people in the room would be transitioning to another business while he became focused and they simply froze in fear.
[315 words]

[Time 6]
His is not an isolated story. I’ve seen this happen during all four of the recessions I’ve experienced. Years later, I met someone who left his employment, cashed out his retirement money and decided to become an entrepreneur. He started his very own moving and storage business. He literally began with one truck, a storage facility and an office. He opened his doors and was excited to start his journey. This was in early 2008. Just as he joined the ranks of entrepreneurship, the Great Recession came crashing down on him.

He was devasted. All his hopes, dreams and cash were about to evaporate, but he had a similar attitude to my real estate friend, doubling down his efforts and immersing himself in networking groups to build his word of mouth. At the same time, he integrated self-storage programs into his business to help people who consolidated homes during this time period. This was one of the few growth areas during the recession.

The bottom line was that he also refused to participate in the recession.  While other people were frozen in fear, he was focused on solutions.  He came out of that recession larger and stronger than he was when he and his company went into it.  You can find him today with many trucks and multiple locations around the country.

Entrepreneurs have been hit with a double whammy. First, COVID-19, and now, a recession. What I know to be true is that if you focus on the problem, you will be an expert on the problem. However, if you focus on solutions, you can become an expert on the solutions that will get you through both struggles.

A powerful mindset begins with the belief that you can find solutions to the current situation. Belief is that little voice inside you whispering to you the things that “can be” while everyone around you is screaming about the things that “can't be." The right mindset, along with a plan of action, will lead you successfully through these turbulent times.

I for one, am going out today to make more buttons that say: “I Refuse to Participate in the Recession.” I invite you to do the same.
[366 words]

Source: Entrepreneur
https://www.entrepreneur.com/article/352706


Part III: Obstacle

When and How to Respond to Microaggressions
By  Ella F. Washington, Alison Hall Birch and Laura Morgan Roberts    |    03 July 2020

[Paraphrase 7]
In U.S. workplaces — and around the world — people are finally engaging in real conversations about race, justice, diversity, equality, and inclusion. That’s a good thing, hopefully paving the way for meaningful anti-racist action from both individuals and organizations. But those discussions will in all likelihood be very uncomfortable — not just for white employees and leaders who might be confronting their privilege for the first time but also for people of color, especially Black Americans, who know that candid talks with colleagues will mean they either face or need to call out “microaggressions.”

These are incidents in which someone accidentally (or purposely) makes an offensive statement or asks an insensitive question. Microagressions are defined as verbal, behavioral, and environmental indignities that communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative racial slights and insults to the target person or group. For Black people, they are ubiquitous across daily work and life. Here are a few seemingly innocuous statements that, in the context of racist assumptions and stereotypes, can be quite damaging.

        “When I see you, I don’t see color.” (signaling that the person doesn’t acknowledge your Blackness or won’t hold it against you)
        “We are all one race: the human race.” (signaling that your experience as a Black person is no different from the experience of people of other races)
        “You are so articulate.” (signaling that Black people are not usually capable of competent intellectual conversation)
        “I see your hair is big today! Are you planning to wear it like that to the client meeting?” (signaling that natural Black hairstyles are not professional)
        “Everyone can succeed in society if they work hard enough.” (signaling that disparate outcomes for Black people result from laziness)

As suggested by the name, microaggressions seem small; but compounded over time, they can have a deleterious impact on an employee’s experience, physical health, and psychological well-being. In fact, research suggests that subtle forms of interpersonal discrimination like microaggressions are at least as harmful as more-overt expressions of discrimination.

Microaggressions reinforce white privilege and undermine a culture of inclusion. The best solution is, of course, increasing awareness of microaggressions, insisting that non-Black employees stop committing them, and calling out those who do. But in the absence of those changes — and understanding that complete prevention is probably impossible — how should Black employees and managers respond to the microaggressions they face, within and outside of current discussions around race in the workplace?

There are three main ways to react:
Let it go. For a long time, the most common default response was choosing not to address offensive comments in the workplace. Because they are pervasive yet subtle, they can be emotionally draining to confront. Yet silence places an emotional tax on Black employees, who are left wondering what happened and why, questioning their right to feel offended, and reinforcing beliefs that they are not safe from identity devaluation at work.

Respond immediately. This approach allows the transgression to be called out and its impact explained while the details of the incident are fresh in the minds of everyone involved. Immediacy is an important component of correcting bad behavior. But this approach can be risky. The perpetrator might get defensive, leaving the target feeling like they somehow “lost control,” did not show up as their best self, and will be labeled an overly sensitive whiner, a trouble-maker, or the stereotypical angry Black person.

Respond later. A more tempered response is to address the perpetrator privately at a later point to explain why the microaggression was offensive. Here, the risk lies in the time lag. A follow-up conversation requires helping the person who committed the microaggression to first recall it and then to appreciate its impact. The Black employee bringing it up might be deemed petty — like someone who has been harboring resentment or holding on to “little things” while the other party, having “meant no harm,” has moved on. Such accusations are a form of racial gaslighting, which can be very damaging.

We recommend the following framework for determining which course is best for you in any given situation and then, if you decide to respond, ensuring an effective dialogue.

Discern. Determine how much of an investment you want to make in addressing the microaggression. Do not feel pressured to respond to every incident; rather, feel empowered to do so when you decide you should. Consider:
        The importance of the issue and the relationship. If either is or both are important to you, avoidance is the wrong approach. Express yourself in a way that honors your care for the other party, and assert yourself in a way that acknowledges your concern about the issue.
        Your feelings. Microaggressions can make you doubt the legitimacy of your reactions. Allow yourself to feel what you feel, whether it’s anger, disappointment, frustration, aggravation, confusion, embarrassment, exhaustion, or something else. Any emotion is legitimate and should factor into your decision about whether, how, and when to respond. With more-active negative emotions such as anger, it’s often best to address the incident later. If you’re confused, an immediate response might be preferable. If you’re simply exhausted from the weight of working while Black, maybe it is best to let it go — meaning best for you, not for the perpetrator.
        How you want to be perceived now and in the future. There are consequences to speaking up and to remaining silent. Only you can determine which holds more weight for you in any specific situation.

Disarm. If you choose to confront a microaggression, be prepared to disarm the person who committed it. One reason we avoid conversations about race is that they make people defensive. Perpetrators of microaggressions typically fear being perceived — or worse, revealed — as racist. Explain that the conversation might get uncomfortable for them but that what they just said or did was uncomfortable for you. Invite them to sit alongside you in the awkwardness of their words or deeds while you get to the root of their behavior together.

Defy. Challenge the perpetrator to clarify their statement or action. Use a probing question, such as “How do you mean that?” This gives people a chance to check themselves as they unpack what happened. And it gives you an opportunity to better gauge the perpetrator’s intent. One of the greatest privileges is the freedom not to notice you have privilege; so microaggressions are often inadvertently offensive. Acknowledge that you accept their intentions to be as they stated but reframe the conversation around the impact of the microaggression. Explain how you initially interpreted it and why. If they continue to assert that they “didn’t mean it like that,” remind them that you appreciate their willingness to clarify their intent and hope they appreciate your willingness to clarify their impact.

Decide. You control what this incident will mean for your life and your work — what you will take from the interaction and what you will allow it to take from you. Black people, as well as those with various other marginalized and intersectional identities, are already subject to biased expectations and evaluations in the workplace. Life is sufficiently taxing without allowing microaggressions to bring you down. Let protecting your joy be your greatest and most persistent act of resistance.

A note of advice for non-Black allies old and new: The work of allyship is difficult. You will make mistakes as you learn — and you will always be learning. For anyone accused of committing a microaggression or counseling someone who has been accused, here are a few notes on how to respond:
        Remember that intent does not supersede impact.
        Seek to understand the experiences of your Black peers, bosses, and employees without making them responsible for your edification.
        Believe your Black colleagues when they choose to share their insights; don’t get defensive or play devil’s advocate.
        Get comfortable rethinking much of what you thought to be true about the world and your workplace and accept that you have likely been complicit in producing inequity.

Although more organizations are encouraging candid discussions on race in the workplace, we cannot ignore the historical backlash that Black employees have endured for speaking up. Cultural change takes time and intention. So while we encourage timely and strategic dialogue about microaggressions, it is ultimately up to each individual to respond in the way that is most authentic to who they are and how they want to be perceived.
[1402 words]

Source:  Harvard Business Review
https://hbr.org/2020/07/when-and-how-to-respond-to-microaggressions?ab=hero-main-text



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发表于 2020-7-13 15:22:24 | 显示全部楼层
T2 2'31''
T3 3'42''
T4 1'36''
T5 2'17''
T6 2'23''
T7 8'46''
发表于 2020-7-13 22:20:08 | 显示全部楼层
OB:
paving the way for meaningful anti-racist
Microagressions are defined as verbal, behavioral, and environmental indignities that communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative racial slights and insults to the target person or group.
innocuous
microaggressions seem small; but compounded over time, they can have a deleterious impact on an employee’s experience
Because they are pervasive yet subtle, they can be emotionally draining to confront.
Immediacy is an important component of correcting bad behavior. But this approach can be risky. The perpetrator might get defensive
gauge the perpetrator’s intent
various other marginalized and intersectional identities
Remember that intent does not supersede impact.
发表于 2020-7-14 00:11:42 | 显示全部楼层
The willingness to actively seek out opposing viewpoints  is an important quality needed to be successful in both business and in life.
1. Be willing to question your current view of reality
2. Regularly seek out counter-information
3. Become aware of how you feel in the moment
发表于 2020-7-14 11:28:03 | 显示全部楼层
Are you open to opposing viewpoints? 3 tips for improving critical thinking
[Time2]3’52
[Time3]4’24
Learning to open to opposing viewpoints is important in the life including workplace. The author recommends 3 tips which can help us learn to do it and improve our critical thinking. First, be willing to question your current view of reality. Try not to stick to your current thinking habit but try to question your current view. It is the first step which can help you learn to open to opposing viewpoints. Second, regularly seek out counter-information. We tend to trap into a mindset that focus on the information which are align with our pre-existing views and values, especially when leaders are surrounded by sycophants and when we are exposed to media where there are abundant of information meeting our current views. Last, become aware of how you feel in the moment.

Reap the benefit of sth
Insulate: to protect someone or something from outside influences
Fallibility: 易错
Take shock of : 盘点,估量
Sycophant: 阿谀奉承的人
Curate: something that is partly good but mainly bad
Idiosyncratic: idiosyncratic tendencies are unusual or strange, and not shared by other people
Oblivious: not conscious of something, especially what is happening around you
Thwart:阻挠
Align with our pre-existing views
Remain receptive to opposing viewpoint
Make quick, instinctive judgments based on emotion
发表于 2020-7-14 11:44:23 | 显示全部楼层
A stories about how the writer came across a optimitic business man during an ecomomic hard time and changed her mindset forever.
01:22
Two opportunities in real estate appear in recession.
01:06
A powerful mindset begins with the belief that you can find solutions to the current situation. Belief is that little voice inside you whispering to you the things that “can be” while everyone around you is screaming about the things that “can't be." The right mindset, along with a plan of action, will lead you successfully through these turbulent times.
1:21
发表于 2020-7-14 21:30:29 | 显示全部楼层
T2:2'24
tell us some tips about improving our critical thinking,Strategies you can use right now to open yourself up to different ideas and reap the benefits of critical thinking.
1. Be willing to question your current view of reality
T3:2'57''
2. Regularly seek out counter-information
You will undoubtedly identify blind spots in your own thinking and may even strengthen your own convictions by understanding not only the best and most convincing arguments for your position but also those against it.
3. Become aware of how you feel in the moment
There is value in exposing yourself to arguments that run counter to your current perspective.
T4:1'29''  Mindset has a lot to do with how one navigates a tough economy successfully.  
T5:1'52''
T6:1‘15’‘ Belief is that little voice inside you whispering to you the things that “can be” while everyone around you is screaming about the things that “can't be." The right mindset, along with a plan of action, will lead you successfully through these turbulent times.
发表于 2020-7-15 23:06:37 | 显示全部楼层
OB 06:38

Microagressions are defined as verbal, behavioral, and environmental indignities that communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative racial slights and insults to the target person or group. Microaggressions seem small; but compounded over time, they can have a deleterious impact on an employee’s experience, physical health, and psychological well-being. The best solution is, of course, increasing awareness of microaggressions, insisting that non-Black employees stop committing them, and calling out those who do.
There are three main ways for  Black employees and managers to react to microaggressions. However, those ways all have drawbacks.
We recommend the following framework for determining which course is best for you in any given situation and then, if you decide to respond, ensuring an effective dialogue.
Discern. Determine how much of an investment you want to make in addressing the microaggression.
Disarm. If you choose to confront a microaggression, be prepared to disarm the person who committed it.
Defy. Challenge the perpetrator to clarify their statement or action.
Decide. You control what this incident will mean for your life and your work — what you will take from the interaction and what you will allow it to take from you.
For anyone accused of committing a microaggression or counseling someone who has been accused, here are a few notes on how to respond:
        Remember that intent does not supersede impact.
        Seek to understand the experiences of your Black peers, bosses, and employees without making them responsible for your edification.
        Believe your Black colleagues when they choose to share their insights; don’t get defensive or play devil’s advocate.
        Get comfortable rethinking much of what you thought to be true about the world and your workplace and accept that you have likely been complicit in producing inequity.
发表于 2020-7-15 23:14:31 发自手机 Web 版 | 显示全部楼层
Ob:13’22[1402W]
发表于 2020-7-15 23:57:33 | 显示全部楼层
T2 2'14''
T3 1'56''
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OBSTACLE: 12'39''
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