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[阅读小分队] 【Native Speaker每日训练计划】No.2776科技

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发表于 2020-5-11 09:04:05 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
内容:Chopin Hong 编辑:Carrie Qin
Wechat ID: NativeStudy  / Weibo: http://weibo.com/u/3476904471
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Part I: Speaker

Flamingos Can Be Picky about Company
By Jason G. Goldman on May 7, 2020

They don’t stand on one leg around just anybody but often prefer certain members of the flock.

Source: Scientific American
https://www.scientificamerican.com/podcast/episode/flamingos-can-be-picky-about-company/

[Rephrase 1, 03:01]

Part II: Speed


Some comb jellies cannibalize their young when food is scarce
By Erin Garcia de Jesus
MAY 7, 2020

[Time 2]
Some jellies go ballistic when their prey disappears — cannibalistic that is.

Warty comb jellies, native to the western Atlantic Ocean, invaded Eurasian waters in the 1980s. The jellies have since flourished, cycling through population booms during summer when prey is abundant and busts in fall and winter when it’s not. Now a study finds that to persist when food is scarce, adult jellies eat their young.

Understanding how a “brainless, fragile animal” conquers new environments could reveal new ways to control the invasive species, says Jamileh Javidpour, a marine ecologist at the University of Southern Denmark in Odense.

Javidpour and her colleagues collected adult and larval comb jellies (Mnemiopsis leidyi) from Kiel Fjord — an inlet of the Baltic Sea east of Germany — in August and September of 2008, before and after the jelly population collapsed. As the adults’ preferred food source, small crustaceans called copepods, plummeted at the end of August, young comb jellies also began to disappear. By the end of the collapse, adults made up the bulk of the population.

Back in the lab, the researchers chemically labelled larvae with a rare type, or isotope, of nitrogen, and placed the young jellies with starved adults. After 36 hours, those adults had higher levels of the isotope than adults fed a normal diet, a sign that the animals consumed the larvae, the team reports May 7 in Communications Biology.

Because larvae can’t survive the cold winters, the study suggests that this comb jelly species ramps up reproduction in late summer — when it might otherwise be counterproductive — in order to feast on its young and bulk up before winter.

“We thought that it was self-infecting harm,” says coauthor Thomas Larsen, a biologist at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany. But it seems the jellies are “building up resources for the winter.”
[308 words]

Source: Science News
https://www.sciencenews.org/article/comb-jellies-cannibalism-young-f
ood-prey-scarce




Physicists have found a way to foil a classic oobleck science trick
By Emily Conover
MAY 8, 2020

[Time 3]

It takes guts to attempt running across the surface of a liquid. Even more so if a sneaky physicist is nearby.

A mixture of cornstarch and water known as oobleck solidifies when hit with a forceful impact. That effect makes for a classic science party trick, in which participants run across the liquid’s surface. But a new technique could sink those runners, researchers report May 8 in Science Advances.

Oobleck is a non-Newtonian fluid, meaning that its viscosity changes depending upon the forces exerted on it. Other non-Newtonian fluids include ketchup and frog saliva, both of which get thinner with applied force, in contrast to oobleck.

In laboratory experiments, a cylinder dropped onto the surface of oobleck sank more quickly when researchers rapidly rotated the mixture’s container clockwise and counterclockwise. Normally, the impact of the cylinder would cause particles of cornstarch to come into contact with one another, jamming up into a solid. But by oscillating the container, “you basically move the particles so they are no longer in contact, and this makes it liquid again,” says physicist Meera Ramaswamy of Cornell University.

The same effect, Ramaswamy and colleagues say, would sink a foot impacting the surface of oobleck in a rotating tub. It could also be useful in industrial processes involving similar fluids, for example, preventing clogs in tubes that carry cement.

The next step, she says, is to try the technique on a larger scale, in hopes of foiling would-be runners.
[243 words]

Source: Science News
https://www.sciencenews.org/article/oobleck-cornstarch-water-running-physics




How tiny ‘dead’ galaxies get their groove back and make stars again
By Ken Croswell
MAY 8, 2020


[Time 4]
Talk about sibling rivalry. Most of the smallest galaxies are “dead,” making no new stars. Now, computer simulations reveal why it is so hard for a tiny galaxy to rejuvenate itself: The galaxy’s existing stars fight the birth of any new ones, even after fresh fuel for star formation falls into the galaxy.

These simulations also show that eventually new stars can arise and make the galaxy sparkle again. But it can take many billions of years for a little galaxy to get its star-making mojo back, researchers report April 20 at arXiv.org.

Galaxies spawn new stars from gas, but the gas must be cold and dense to collapse into stars. That requirement spelled big trouble for little galaxies soon after the universe’s birth, when ultraviolet radiation from galaxies broke intergalactic hydrogen atoms into protons and electrons. This process, called reionization, let radiation stream through space and heat gas inside galaxies. The smallest galaxies had so little gas to begin with that it all got zapped by the ionizing radiation. As a result, the typical low-mass dwarf galaxy stopped creating stars long ago.

In these tiny galaxies, “reionization killed star formation,” says Martin Rey, an astrophysicist at Lund Observatory in Sweden. All the stars in most low-mass dwarf galaxies today are therefore ancient.

But two unrelated dwarf galaxies in the constellation Leo, named Leo P and Leo T, never got the memo. Puny even by dwarf standards, both galaxies still eke out new stars. They are the least luminous star-forming galaxies known: Leo P’s stellar mass is only 560,000 solar masses, about 0.001 percent of the Milky Way’s total, and Leo T has even fewer stars. Both galaxies are the Milky Way’s neighbors — Leo P is 5 million light-years and Leo T is just 1.3 million light-years away — so astronomers can see the newborn stars.
[305 words]

[Time 5]

To explain how such small galaxies thrive today, Rey’s team ran computer simulations of the gas, stars and dark matter in low-mass dwarf galaxies. The simulations showed that infalling gas can resuscitate dwarf galaxies and reignite their star formation, a finding supported by earlier work. But “we find that it takes quite a long time,” Rey says.

The problem is that old stars in the dwarf galaxy prevent the birth of new stars by stirring up the gas, the researchers found. In particular, exploding white dwarf stars and winds from large red aging stars heat the gas, delaying the new era of star birth. In fact, 6 to 8 billion years — about half the age of the universe — can pass before little dwarf galaxies resume their star-making careers and resemble Leo P and Leo T, the scientists report.

“Their results are very plausible,” says Kristen McQuinn, an astrophysicist at Rutgers University in Piscataway, N.J., who has studied Leo P in the past but was not involved with the new work. She says including the negative effects of the galaxy’s own stars makes the simulations unique.

Rey and his colleagues also found something else. “The kind of surprise and cherry on the cake was the fact that we can predict a new class of galaxies,” Rey says. The simulations show that some low-mass dwarf galaxies have acquired gas but not yet begun to mint new stars.

No definite examples of gas-rich dwarf galaxies that lack star formation are known, Rey says, but he predicts future observations will uncover them. New optical telescopes should find the faint old stars in these galaxies, and radio telescopes should detect their hydrogen gas, which may someday spawn new stars.
[284 words]

Source: Science News
https://www.sciencenews.org/article/how-dead-dwarf-galaxies-make-stars-again-gas



Deep-sea mining may damage underwater ecosystems for decades
By Carolyn Gramling
MAY 4, 2020

[Time 6]

Microbe communities living in the seafloor off Peru haven’t bounced back from a deep-sea mining experiment 26 years ago. The populations are still reduced by 30 percent in this part of the South Pacific Ocean, researchers report April 29 in Science Advances.

From 1989 to 1994, the DISturbance and reCOLonization, or DISCOL, experiment plowed grooves into the seafloor to mimic deep-sea mining for valuable metal-bearing rocks. The lumps of rock, known as polymetallic or manganese nodules, contain economically important metals such as copper, nickel and cobalt.

To recover the nodules, miners dredge the seafloor, scraping off much of the top layer of sediment along with the rocks. Researchers have long expressed concern about how this might affect deep-sea ecosystems. But there is little data about the effects of deep-sea mining on the ocean environment — and particularly on the microbes at the base of the food web, which cycle the nutrient nitrogen between seafloor and bottom waters.

Scientists last assessed DISCOL’s effects in 1996. So in 2015, microbial ecologist Tobias Vonnahme, now of The Arctic University of Norway in Tromsø, and colleagues devised a new test, comparing the 26-year-old plow tracks with five-week-old tracks they dug into the seafloor.

Cell counts of microbes in the younger tracks were reduced by about 50 percent compared with undisturbed areas; in older tracks, cell numbers were reduced by about 30 percent. Due to slow accumulation of sediment in the deep sea, regions disturbed by mining could take more than 50 years to fully recover, the team says.
[253 words]

Source: Science News
https://www.sciencenews.org/article/deep-sea-mining-may-damage-underwater-ecosystems-decades


Part III: Obstacle


Ten Animals and Plants Around the World That You Can (Virtually) Adopt
By Jennifer Nalewicki    |  SMITHSONIANMAG.COM  |  May 5, 2020

[Paraphrase 7]
One of the positive developments that has come about during the COVID-19 pandemic is that more animals are being adopted than usual, in particular dogs and cats. However, plenty of other animals (and plants) around the world—many of which are threatened or endangered—need help, too. Here are ten species that are up for (virtual) adoption.

Saguaros, Arizona
The Sonoran Desert in Arizona and Southern California is the only place in the world where saguaros grow. These towering cacti (Carnegiea gigantea) can live up to 200 years and reach 60 feet in height, making it the largest cactus species in the United States. One of the locations where saguaros grow in abundance is Saguaro National Park in Tucson, Arizona, with more than 1.9 million saguaros peppering the arid landscape. To help protect these prickly giants, the Friends of Saguaro National Park, a nonprofit fundraising partner of the National Park Service, has created an adoption program. Starting at $35, proceeds of each adoption go into a protection fund used for researching and maintaining the park’s forest of saguaros. (The organization also offers adoptions of various species living within the park, like coyotes, gila monsters and javelinas.)

Manta Rays, Republic of Maldives
The aquamarine waters surrounding the Republic of Maldives are home to the world’s largest known population of manta rays, with numbers hovering around 5,000. These reef-laden tropical waters in South Asia serve as the species’ home base, and from June through November, the Ari Atoll just north of the island nation becomes a major aggregating ground for the winged fish flocking there to feed on zooplankton. Since 2011, the Manta Trust has been working on conservation efforts to help protect the species, which can live up to 50 years in the wild. One of those efforts is through public adoption. For $25, donors can choose from any one of a number of frequently sighted mantas available—Mrs. Flappy, Spiderman and George the Giant to name a few. The Manta Trust's Maldivian Manta Ray Project has identified more than 4,900 reef manta rays (Mobula alfredi) based on the unique spot patterns on their undersides. Donors receive a digital adoption packet that includes details specific to that individual, an activity packet and more.

Galápagos Tortoises, Galápagos Islands
The Galápagos tortoise is the largest tortoise in the world, stretching more than 5 feet in length and weighing up to 550 pounds. Due to their vast size, humans began hunting them for their meat centuries ago, severely threatening their survival. (Fortunately, one particularly virile male tortoise helped bring them back from the brink as part of an island-wide breeding program.) Now many efforts are at play to help protect these gentle creatures, which can live more than 100 years in the wild. One organization in particular that’s leading the effort is the Galapagos Conservation Trust, a pioneer in research and conservation that runs an adoption program. For 35 pounds (about $44), donors receive an information packet about the species, a personalized certificate of adoption and a plush toy. The trust also offers adoptions of sea lions, hammerhead sharks and other species found around the archipelago.

Mountain Gorillas, Central Africa
The future of the mountain gorilla, a species of great ape inhabiting the mist-blanketed mountains of central Africa, remains in jeopardy. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) currently classifies it as an endangered species, with less than 1,200 remaining in Uganda, Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Human interference from poaching and deforestation has taken a toll on the giant herbivores, who feed on stems, roots and other greenery found throughout their forest habitat. To help ensure the survival of future generations of this species, the Gorilla Organization manages an adoption program that, starting at less than $4 per month, provides funding to support a variety of conservation projects, from reducing hunting snares to creating gorilla safe zones. Adopters receive an adoption certificate and news about their individual gorilla, as well as either a T-shirt or a plush toy.

Coral Reefs, Bermuda
While coral bleaching due to rising water temperatures has been a global issue for a number of years, the reefs surrounding Bermuda remain relatively unscathed thanks to the island’s more temperate climate. Unfortunately, other outside sources, such as the construction of the local airport in the 1950s, have left some of the reefs severely damaged, infringing on an ecosystem that many underwater dwellers like blue angelfish and barracudas rely on to survive. To help maintain the current reefs while also planting new coral gardens, Living Reefs launched its “Adopt a Coral Garden” project in 2016. In exchange for a donation of $600 for a mini garden or $150 for a single polyp, adopters receive a ceramic plaque enscribed with their name. Those interested can inquire here.

Sequoias, Northern California
Found towering along the western slope of the Sierra Nevada mountain range predominately in Northern California, sequoias are some of the tallest trees and oldest living organisms on the planet, reaching heights of 300 feet and living up to 2,000 years. As part of its conservation efforts, Sequoia ForestKeepers manages an adoption program with funding that goes toward a variety of different programs, such as data collection on the health of the trees and sustainable land management practices. For $100 for a single tree or $2,500 for a stand of sequoias, donors receive a certificate of adoption, GPS coordinates and a map showing the location of the adopted tree, and an 8-by-10-inch photo of the sequoia.

Asian Elephants, Thailand
Since 2001, the Wildlife Friends Foundation Thailand has been instrumental in the conservation of Asian elephants, an endangered species whose numbers have been severely depleted over the years due to poaching and deforestation. According to the WFFT, 97 percent of the continent’s elephant population has already been lost, with approximately 2,000 individuals remaining in the wild. The WFFT maintains the Elephant Refuge, a rescue facility about 100 miles southwest of Bangkok that is home to several dozen elephants saved from mistreatment in the tourism industry, where they were forced to give rides and entertain the public. As part of the foundation’s adoption program, which starts at $38, donors receive an adoption certificate plus periodic email updates on their adopted elephant.

West Indian Manatees, Florida
Despite being downgraded on the endangered species list in 2017, West Indian manatees are still a threatened species protected under a number of laws, including the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 and the Florida Manatee Sanctuary Act of 1979. Today roughly 5,700 of these gentle mammals (often called sea cows) float in Florida’s waterways, and although they have no known natural enemies, they are susceptible to human interference, particularly collisions with watercraft and water pollution. The nonprofit Save the Manatee Club has been doing its part since 1981 to educate the public about the species’ vulnerabilities as well as to protect these mammals and their warm-water habitats. One way to help is through the club's Adopt-a-Manatee program. For $25, donors receive an adoption certificate; a photo of a manatee that frequents spots like Blue Spring State Park, Homosassa Springs State Park and Tampa Bay; a subscription to a Manatee Zone newsletter and a membership handbook.

Horseshoe Crabs, Delaware Bay
Horseshoe crabs can be found crawling along the shores of the Atlantic Ocean from Maine to as far south as the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico. But their favorite breeding ground has remained the same for ages: the Delaware Bay. Each spring, beginning in late April or early May, tens of thousands of these arthropods, whose history stretches back some 400 million years earning them the much-deserved title of “living fossils,” descend on this stretch of sand to lay their eggs. But despite the species’ longevity, they still need the help of conservation efforts. The New Jersey-based nonprofit Wetlands Institute estimates that Delaware Bay’s horseshoe crab population has decreased by 90 percent over the last 150 years due to overharvesting. Though the practice is on the decline, humans historically extracted blood from horseshoe crabs, because its sensitivity to endotoxins made it crucial, before a synthetic substitute was developed, for testing for bacterial contamination on medical devices. Wetlands Insitute created an adoption program to help. Starting at $25, adopters receive a digital photo of a horseshoe crab and adoption certificate, plus a copy of its annual newsletter.

Kiwis, New Zealand
Native to New Zealand, kiwis are synonymous with the island country. The Maori, the first people to live on the island, named the bird, which is now New Zealand's national bird. Since 1971, Otorohanga Kiwi House has been protecting these flightless birds. Approximately 70,000 kiwi remain in the wild today, and because they can’t fly, they’re particularly vulnerable to predators. To help protect their numbers from further decline, Kiwi House offers an Adopt a Kiwi House Critter program. Available birds include the great spotted kiwi and the brown kiwi, two of the five kiwi species found in New Zealand. Adoptions cost $60 per year, and the funds go toward conservation efforts, such as breeding programs. Adopters receive an adoption certificate, plush toy and one free admission to view their adopted bird in person at the facility.
[1528 words]

Source: Smithsonian
https://www.smithsonianmag.com/travel/ten-animals-and-plants-around-the-world-you-can-virtually-adopt-180974790/

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发表于 2020-5-11 10:23:41 | 显示全部楼层
T2【2分39秒,6分12秒】
Two researches reveal that jelly feeds on their larva when foods are rare to build up for winter.

go ballistic: fly into a rage
prey: 猎物
cannibalism, canibalistic: 食人,食人的
eurasian: 欧亚
bust: break, split, or burst
ramp up/ ramp sth up: increase or cause to increase in amount
otherwise: adv. in circumstances different from those present/ apart from that/ in a different way
feast on: eat large quantities of

T3【-】
Scientists found a way to prevent oobleck from solidifying when it is suppressed.

oscillate: 震荡,波动
foil: prevent ( sth) from succeeding

T4【3分00秒】
reionization kills stars formation, but Leo P and Leo T are exceptions.

T5【2分22秒】
infalling gas facilitates star formation, while the existing stars impede the formation. New galaxy predicted.

spawn: release or deposit eggs/ produce or generate
spell: be a sign or characteristic of / mean or have as a result
zap: destroy or obliterate


T6【2分51秒】
Deep-sea mining undermines the deep sea ecosystem.

goove: 沟,槽
cobalt: 钴
microbe: 微生物
发表于 2020-5-11 14:07:37 | 显示全部楼层
picky: describes someone who is very careful about choosing only what they like
picky eater
sb who is picky about sth

[Time2]3‘49
Studies found that some comb jellies prey on their young when food is scarce. To prove this argument, scientists made an experiment in which they labeled larvae comb jellies with a rare isotype and placed them with starved adults. After some time , they found that those adults had higher levels of the isotope than ones fed on a normal diet, which means that they ate the larvae.

Cannibalize: 拆卸利用 to take parts of one machine to use in another , for example to repair it
Ballistic:to go extremely angry
Larvae 幼虫

[Time3]2’30
Physicists found a way which can fail a science party trick-a mixture of cornstarch and water solidifies when hit with a forceful impact which enables participants run across the liquid’s surface. Physicists found that if they rotated the mixture’s container, then the mixture would turn into liquid again because the particles are no longer in contact when they are moved. The finding has significant meaning for application and researchers will continue to try this technique on a larger scale.

It takes guts to do sth 做某事需要胆量
Gut 肠子
Viscosity: the thick and sticky quality of a liquid
Solidify: 固化
Ketch up 番茄酱
Oscillate: to move repeatedly from one position to another

[Time4]2’23
[Time5]1’57
The reason why most of the smallest galaxies don’t make new stars is that the galaxy’s existing stars fight the birth of any new ones. Although scientists find that these galaxy could make new stars again, it could take many billions of year for a little galaxy to realize it. What’s more, Scientists said that reionization foiled star formation. However, some low-mass dwarf galaxies have acquired gas but not yet begun to mint new stars. The research still has a long way to go.

Infalling :陨落的
Resuscitate: to bring someone or sth back to life or wake them
Ionization: 电离

[Time6] 1’17
发表于 2020-5-11 14:17:33 | 显示全部楼层
[Time 2]        1‘38
[Time 3]        1‘41
[Time 4]        1‘35
[Time 5]        1‘24
[Time 6]        1‘18
[Paraphrase 7]        8‘17
发表于 2020-5-11 18:27:43 | 显示全部楼层
New words:ballistic  cannibalistic  inlet  isotope  ramps up   oobleck cornstarch viscosity rejuvenate  Puny  resuscitate reignite  dredge
nodules
00:00
CJs have tendecy to eat their young babies. CJs shows population cycle
Study shows that as their major preyers decline, young CJs decline too and adult CJs thrive.
This finding is helpful to control invasive species
03:07
Studies find out a new kind of oobleck can sink objects on the surface of it. This finding could  be useful in industrial processes involving similar fluids.
02:44
Scientists discovered two dwarf galaxies which still give birth to new stars.
02:03
Using computer simulation ,  researcher found that in falling gas can resuscitate dwarf galaxies and reignite their star formation. This finding is helpful to predict a new class of galaxies.
02:40
Deep-sea mining could damage microbe communities, although little data indicates this severe situation.
01:45
发表于 2020-5-11 20:32:40 | 显示全部楼层
[Time 2]        1‘48
[Time 3]        1‘45
[Time 4]        2‘45
[Time 5]        2‘24
[Time 6]        1‘58
发表于 2020-5-11 20:44:47 | 显示全部楼层
time 2: 2'10"
time 3: 1‘53“
time 4: 1‘58“
time 5: 1’55”
time 6: 2‘13“
OB: 8‘45“
发表于 2020-5-11 22:20:56 | 显示全部楼层
May11th
R1
Flamingos choose their peers and it means they are social animals

T2  03'12 [308]
Experiments show that adult jellies make up the population while young ones disappear. Some comb jellies cannibalize their young when food is scarce. They ramps up reproduction in late summer to feast on its young and bulk up before winter.

T3  02'27  [243]
By oscillating the container, oob~ becomes it liquid again. The new finding provide fundenment for preventing clogs in tubes that carry cement.

T4  02'05 [243]
T5  02‘14 [284]
Tiny dead galaxies rejuvenate itself and make stars again. Simulations show that infalling gas can resuscitate dwarf galaxies and reignite their star formation.
发表于 2020-5-11 22:25:05 发自手机 Web 版 | 显示全部楼层
T2 3:10
T3: 1:52
T4:2:54
T5:1:28
T6:1:59
T7:5:04
发表于 2020-5-11 22:49:14 发自手机 Web 版 | 显示全部楼层
T2 2:42
T3: 1:51
T4:2:08
T5:1:19
T6:1:27
OB:8:11
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