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[阅读小分队] 【Native Speaker每日训练计划】No.2767文史哲

发表于 2020-5-3 23:04:01 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
内容:Inge Zhou 编辑: Vera Pan

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Part I: Speaker

4 larger-than-life lessons from soap operas
Kate Adams, September 2016

Soap operas and telenovelas may be (ahem) overdramatic, but as Kate Adams shows us, their exaggerated stories and characters often cast light on the problems of real life. In this sparkling, funny talk, Adams, a former assistant casting director for "As the World Turns," shares four lessons for life and business that we can learn from melodramas.

Source: TED
[Rephrase 12:27]

Part II: Speed

As Students Put Off College, Anxious Universities Tap Wait Lists
- Uncertain that campuses will reopen, students are reluctant to commit for the fall. For schools, enrollment drops and lost revenue could be devastating
Anemona Hartocollis and Dan Levin, May 1st 2020

[Time 2]
Ahead of the traditional May 1 deadline to decide where she would go to college, Tiffany Tang had four schools to choose from. Then on Tuesday, the University of California, Los Angeles emailed to offer her a spot off the wait list. That evening, she received a call from a Houston area code — an admissions officer from Rice. On Wednesday, Cornell got in touch.

Her gain may reflect higher education’s loss. Shaken by economic hardship, health fears and uncertainty about when campuses will reopen, a large number of high school seniors appear to be putting off a decision about where to go to college in the fall — or whether to go at all.

Admissions officers are reluctant to admit weakness, meaning there is little hard data at this point. But there are clear signs of concern about plummeting enrollment and lost revenue. Of some 700 universities with a May 1 acceptance deadline, which include many of the country’s most competitive, about half have already given students an extra month to decide, said Marie Bigham, founder of Accept, a college admissions reform group.
[182 words]

[Time 3]
Some schools are waiving deposit requirements, particularly for foreign students, who are especially valuable to universities because most pay full tuition. And experts say that the number of wait-listed students who are now getting offers, like Ms. Tang, shows that even some of the most selective schools are acting more aggressively to fill freshman classes.

“People are coming off wait lists all over the place right now,” said Debra Felix, a former admissions director at Columbia University who now runs her own student advising service. She added, “It tells me that the yeses are coming back very slowly, or people are getting back to them quickly with noes.”

Many students said they did not want to make a decision about the fall until they knew for sure whether campuses would reopen. Johnny Kennevan, a senior at Seneca High School in Tabernacle, N.J., was recruited to play basketball at York College in Pennsylvania. But his plans would likely change if the campus is still closed, he said.

“It doesn’t make sense to pay 20 grand to sit at my computer at home and take online courses,” he said. “You can get the same education from a community college.”
[197 words]

[Time 4]
The coronavirus pandemic hit at a time when American higher education, which employs about three million people nationwide, was already suffering from a host of financial problems. Many liberal arts colleges have struggled to meet enrollment goals in recent years because of rising tuition costs, concerns about student debt and a shrinking population of young people.

Since mid-March, when colleges abruptly shut down campus operations and moved to online learning, schools have announced hundreds of millions of dollars in losses and say that a $14 billion federal aid package will not be nearly enough to keep struggling schools afloat. Executives have taken pay cuts, endowments have shrunk, hiring has been frozen and construction projects have stopped.

But experts say that is only the beginning if schools cannot persuade students to return in the fall, when many campuses are bracing for the possibility that online learning could continue. Colleges that are used to dangling coveted acceptances in front of high school students and their parents are instead having to provide flexibility in a way that was once unheard of for selective schools.
[181 words]

[Time 5]
Jayne Fonash, president of the National Association for College Admission Counseling, predicted that colleges may try to poach students from one another well after the May 1 deadline, a practice that was discouraged by the industry until this year, after an antitrust settlement.

“They’ll be making some tough decisions about how to fill their classes and how to be sure that their institution remains financially viable,” she said.

Eric Nichols, the vice president of enrollment at Loyola University Maryland, a liberal arts college in Baltimore, said he was getting a lot of questions from students about how to defer their acceptance or take a gap year, and how long they can take to decide. “We think a lot of students won’t have made up their minds even by the summer,” he said.

Universities are likely to be accommodating, Mr. Nichols said, because they would like a commitment, even if it is deferred. At the same time, if deferments start to affect the bottom line, schools might have to refuse.

“It’s honestly an issue that’s never been a problem before,” he said, “but this is uncharted territory, so we’ll see.”
[189 words]

[Time 6]
Colleges are particularly concerned about the loss of foreign students kept away by travel restrictions or a reluctance to leave their home countries during the pandemic. By paying full tuition, international students have helped keep universities financially afloat, subsidizing Americans who need financial aid.

Indiana University’s Bloomington campus has long been a popular choice for students from China, India and South Korea. But international enrollment deposits are lagging 22 percent behind the same time period in previous years, said John Wilkerson, the university’s executive director of international admissions, although he cautioned that international students usually wait until the last minute to decide.

Like many schools hoping that another month will help, Indiana University extended its acceptance deadline to June 1. And for international students, it has waived the enrollment deposit and made housing application fees refundable.

Still, no matter what universities offer, they expect fewer foreign students on campus in the fall. Last month, the American Council on Education, a trade group, projected that international enrollment would drop by 25 percent.

“Everything I’ve heard from the universities is that they’re forecasting, at best, no new incoming international students,” said Daniel Hurley, chief of the Michigan Association of State Universities, which represents the state’s 15 public universities. “That’s not just a one-year hit, that’s a four-year hit. Those students would typically be enrolled for four years, so that’s a negative on the balance sheet for several years.”

Proximity has become a big selling point for American students, too. “We are looking in-state,” Mr. Nichols said, “knowing that the further we get away from campus, the less likely they’ll want to travel.”
[270 words]

[The Rest]
Mary Nguyen of Arlington, Texas, is one of many high school seniors who changed their college plans to stay closer to home.Credit...Dylan Hollingsworth for The New York Times
Mary Nguyen had planned to study nursing at the University of Houston, but her father, who works in electronics stock control, and mother, a machine operator — both considered essential workers — were afraid she would be exposed to the virus there. So they convinced her to go to the University of Texas at Arlington, near where they live.

“Houston has a lot of cases over there, so they’ve been really protective,” she said. “I would commute if I went to Arlington.”

Even so, she is worried about the possibility of having to do her freshman year online if the school cannot reopen in the fall. “That’s a semester where I could be volunteering at a clinic,” she said. “I could be building my credentials.”

Colleges have sent out optimistic letters to try to reassure prospective students that they will get a classic campus experience. But Thuong Hoang, one of Ms. Nguyen’s classmates at Juan Seguin High School in Arlington, said the cheerleading did not sound convincing.

In a Zoom session, Texas Christian University, her college of choice, said courses could be held in alternating shifts, with half the class attending live and half online. “It kind of takes away a little bit of the college experience,” Ms. Hoang said.

As they absorb signs of declining enrollment, colleges are preparing for more revenue losses and spending cuts. Like many schools, the University of California, San Diego has already paused three construction projects and imposed a partial hiring freeze.

“We’ve promised no layoffs until June 30,” said Pradeep Khosla, the chancellor. But the real impact of the virus could be felt at the end of September, when the university’s fall term begins and students must put down tuition money, rather than just deposits.

“That’s when the rubber will meet the road,” he said.

Most colleges would prefer not to take that chance, which is why they are offering more students the opportunity to attend, hoping to meet enrollment targets and keep tuition rolling in.

At Cornell, admissions officers took 99 students off the wait list last week and extended them offers, said Jonathan Burdick, the school’s vice provost for enrollment. That is a fairly typical number, he said, but the university would usually wait until after May 1 to make that move.

“We knew we would almost certainly be going to the wait list after today,” Mr. Burdick said on Friday. “So we decided to do it early.”

Ms. Tang, the high school senior whose options greatly expanded this week, said she was not offered a spot by Cornell, but the school emailed to ask if she was still interested.

And when the Rice admissions officer called from Houston, Ms. Tang said, she looked at the unfamiliar area code and almost did not answer. “But I did, and it was definitely just a really happy surprise,” she said.

Her family, which lives outside Albany, N.Y., has not been immune to the economic impact of the pandemic. Her father, who works in the airline industry, is anxious about his job.

But it is some consolation that she can now choose between so many colleges, she said. “Where I’ve imagined myself going for the past two months has just changed within like, just two days.” [568 words]

Source: the New York Times

Part III: Obstacle

CRITIC’S NOTEBOOK: The ‘Credibility Bookcase’ Is the Quarantine’s Hottest Accessory
- The bookcase has become the preferred background for applying a patina of authority to an amateurish video feed.
Amanda Hess, May 1st 2020

[Paraphrase 7]
Imagine that you are a member of the expert class — the kind of person invited to pontificate on television news programs. Under normal circumstances, your expertise might be signaled to the public by a gaudy photograph of skyscrapers superimposed behind your head. But now the formalities of the broadcast studio are a distant memory, and the only tools to convey that you truly belong on television are the objects within your own home. There’s only one move: You talk in front of a bookcase.

As the broadcast industry shelters in place, the bookcase has become the background of choice for television hosts, executives, politicians and anyone else keen on applying a patina of authority to their amateurish video feeds. In March, when the coronavirus put the handshaking and baby-kissing mode of presidential campaigning on pause, Joe Biden conspicuously retreated from public view for several long days as his team scrambled to project an air of competence from within Biden’s basement. When he finally re-emerged, it was in front of a carefully curated wall-length bookshelf punctuated with patriotic memorabilia like a worn leather football and a triangle-folded American flag.

In April, an anonymous Twitter account, Bookcase Credibility, emerged to keep an eye on the trend and quickly accumulated more than 30,000 followers. Its tagline is “What you say is not as important as the bookcase behind you,” and it offers arch commentary on the rapidly solidifying tropes of the genre as well as genuine respect for a well-executed specimen. YouTube CEO Susan Wojicki appears before “a standard credibility wallpaper presentation in the unthreatening homely style.” The migrants’ rights activist Minnie Rahman’s Encyclopaedia Britannica collection “is a lazy hand wafted at convention.” And the British politician Liam Fox’s “bold grab at credibility is somewhat undermined by the hardback copy of The Da Vinci Code.

Liam Fox (DFDS) has gone big and poses in front of a bookcase in his avi. The bold grab at credibility is somewhat undermined by the hardback copy of The Da Vinci Code. That, political biographies and a book about crime suggest politics, knavery and bullshit.

— Bookcase Credibility (@BCredibility) April 20, 2020

The aesthetics of credibility often go overlooked. The look of cerebral authority is highly specific — in this country, credibility looks like a white man in a dark suit — but it is also blandly inflexible. It gains strength from its constancy over time. It is a superficial choice for people who pretend to reject superficial choices. But now the pandemic has unlocked a whole new canvas for signifying respectability, and for judging it: home décor.

Grading the video conference backgrounds of public figures has become a pandemic parlor game. For a certain class of people, the home must function not only as a pandemic hunkering nest but also be optimized for presentation to the outside world. The Twitter account Room Rater assesses lighting, angles, tidiness and accessorizing and then assigns a score out of 10. (David Frum could use a “plant to soften the space”: 7.) A carefully appointed background wall can delight (as when John Oliver appeared on the “Wendy Williams Show” in front of a painting of Wendy Williams) or it can distract (as when Jamie Dornan filmed himself from the bathroom in an attempt to make his enviable celebrity domicile appear “normal”).

The bookcase offers both a visually pleasing surface and a gesture at intellectual depth. Of all the quarantine judgments being offered right now, this one feels harmless enough. One gets the sense that for the bookcase-background type, being judged by their home libraries is a secret dream finally realized. Spectators hunt their shelves for clues as if examining a puzzle in a highbrow version of Highlights for Children: They have discovered that Pete Buttigieg owns Thomas Piketty’s “Capital,” Paul Rudd has “Jude the Obscure,” and the Broadway actress Melissa Errico displays a volume called “Irish Erotic Art.”

But often the titles of the books themselves are not legible through the screen; all that can be ascertained is the overall vibe. The presence of gilded, leather bound volumes can overwhelm the expert’s own expertise, recalling the props in an ad for a personal injury lawyer; a library so extensive that it requires a “Beauty and the Beast” style ladder inspires grudging respect.

Treating a book as a purely aesthetic object is often seen as an affront to intellectual credibility. In recent years, the bookcase aesthetic has been heavily influenced by the design sensibilities of Instagram, in which books are often arranged not by author or subject but by color and height, in undulating rainbow waves that resist functionality. Services arose to supply literary ornamentation, selling visually pleasing books by the meter. At the height of the pretty bookcase trend, some decorators even suggested displaying books spine-in, flouting the intellectual claim of the library completely in favor of a soothing neutral expanse. When the lifestyle influencer Lauren Conrad filmed a tutorial video in which she slashed into books and put their hollowed-out husks on display, she sparked such outrage that she deleted all evidence of her deed.

The credibility bookcase, with its towering, idiosyncratic array of worn volumes, is itself an affectation. The expert could choose to speak in front of his art prints or his television or his blank white walls, but he chooses to be framed by his books. It is the most insidious of aesthetic trends: one that masquerades as pure intellectual exercise.

It is remarkable how quickly the bookcase has become obligatory, how easily it has been integrated into the brittle aesthetic rules of authority. The appearance of the credibility bookcase suggests that the levers of expertise and professionalism are operating normally, even though they are very much not. There is a hint of tender vulnerability embedded in these authoritative displays. At a time when even our appointed experts rarely know what’s really going on, the veneer of respectability is always at risk of tumbling down. Last week, the ABC correspondent Will Reeve appeared on “Good Morning America” in front of a highly credible bookcase featuring an antique-style clock and a shimmering golden urn. He was not wearing any pants.
[1021 words]

Source: the New York Times


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发表于 2020-5-3 23:55:59 | 显示全部楼层
time2: 1'11"
time 3: 1'00"
time 4:1'03"
time 5: 51"
time 6: 1'45"
the rest: 2'39"
发表于 2020-5-4 05:14:39 | 显示全部楼层
[Time 2] 2:29
Receiving offers from numbers of reputational universities is a success for the oversea student, but it reflects the hardship of higher education behind the COVID-19 crisis.
[Time 3]2:33
Although international students drive the benefit directly from these temporary recruitment policies, the domestic students cast doubt on the value of online courses.
[Time 4] 2:45
Experts indicated that it is just the beginning of the hardship when many universities and colleges suffer from a finical difficulty.
[Time 5] 2:30
Universities are likely to conduct adjustments for students in this period while they have to meet their finical bottom line.
[Time 6] 4:18
Daniel Hurley predicted that might be no new oversea students willing to enroll in the fall in the worst situation according to the travel restriction and the pandemic. Nichols suggested that universities should focus on the recruitment of local students.
发表于 2020-5-4 09:37:31 | 显示全部楼层
T2: 1'28
T3: 1'15
T4: 1'20
T5: 1'11
T6: 1'49
T7; 3‘55
发表于 2020-5-4 10:28:49 | 显示全部楼层
Obstacle 17’34”

Main idea:
The pandemic forced people to work from home via video conference; at the same time, it is a good time to show their tastes (intelligence depth) so most people choose to speak in front of a bookcase. However, purely focusing on the bookcase itself is superficial.

Because of the pandemic, people are quarantined at home, and they are required to join the meeting through video remotely. It is found that most people choose to conduct a video conference in front of a bookcase. Even Joe Biden disappeared from the public for a few days just to have a well-decorated bookcase as his video background.

Then a topic emerged on twitter, of which called “it is not important of what you say but your bookcase”. The twitter account who launched this hashtag also designed a scoring system for the bookcase. On Instagram, people are not showing their bookcases by book tile, but by the colors and heights.

Although it is hard to read the title of the book from the video, the book indeed demonstrates the shelf owner’s intelligence aspect. Therefore, people are willing to speak in front of a bookcase, instead of a whiteboard.

Nevertheless, it is very noteworthy that people are losing their appreciation about beauty. An ornate bookcase cannot represent one’s real level of expertise.

Pontificate: express one’s opinion in a pompous and dogmatic way
Patina: the impression or appearance of something
Parlor: a sitting room in a private house
Aesthetic: concerned with beauty or the appreciation of beauty
Insidious: proceeding with a gradual, subtle way, but with very harmful effects
发表于 2020-5-4 10:51:14 | 显示全部楼层
T2 1'06''
T3 1'15''
T4 1'25''
T5 1'30''
T6 1'41''
T7 5'36''
发表于 2020-5-4 11:17:16 | 显示全部楼层
Time2 2’51
The passage starts with Tiffany Tang’s getting four offers from schools and having to decide where she would go ahead of May 1 to reveal the higher education’s loss. Due to the COVID-19, a large number of students appear to rethink about whether to go to college this fall, which means a significant hit to universities.
Time 3:1’29
The part start to portray the current status universities face and the action they take to mitigate the awful situation. Some schools are waiving deposit requirements and giving offers to those students on the waiting list. On the other hand, many students said they did not want to make a decision about the fall until they knew for sure whether campuses would reopen because it doesn’t make sense to pay a large sum of money to have online courses at home.
Time 4: 3’41 Time 5:1‘51
The coronavirus pandemic makes colleges much worse when some of them have struggled with enrollment problems these years because of rising tuition costs and shrinking population of young people.
Universities have to issue some new policies to accommodate students with their concern about classes like deferring the deadline to deal with the current status.
Time 6:4’
The loss of foreign students is a huge hit to colleges for foreign students pay full tuition, accounting for the main revenue sources for universities. However, no matter what positive policies schools offer, it can be expected that fewer foreign students will be on campus this fall and it has a negative impact on the balance sheet for several years for students would typically be enrolled for four years.
The rest: 5’28
Because of the coronavirus pandemic, some high school seniors changed their college plans. For example, Mary Nguyen decided to go to a college which is near her home so she can commute while her initial choice, Huston, was reported to have a lot of cases over there. On the other hand, schools are preparing for more revenue losses and spending cuts. Some of them have paused their on-going construction projects and imposed a partial hiring freeze. In addition, colleges started to give offer for those on the waiting list and reassure students that they would get a classic campus experience. However, the only thing to Ms. Tang’s comfort is that she at least get more chances to go to her dream schools.

20 grand: 2w英镑
Waive: to not demand sth you have a right to, or not cause a rule to be obeyed 放弃,不遵守规则
Brace: to prepare yourself physically or mentally for sth unpleasant
Many campuses are bracing for the possibility that online learning could continue
Be used to dangling coveted acceptances in front of high school students
Dangle: 承诺
Coveted: 梦寐以求,垂涎的
Uncharted territory: uncharted: 全新的,未知的
Accommodate: 1,容纳 2, 为。。。提供方便 accommodate(=help) the disabled/clients with financial assistance
Consolation : 安慰
发表于 2020-5-4 13:54:07 | 显示全部楼层
[Time 2]        0‘59
[Time 3]        0‘49
[Time 4]        0‘53
[Time 5]        0‘44
[Time 6]        1‘17
[The Rest]        2‘36
[Paraphrase 7]        6‘46
发表于 2020-5-4 14:09:40 | 显示全部楼层
May 4th
T2  00'54  [182]
health fear and uncertainty makes colleges pu off the commit deadline

T3  01'33  [197]
Schools act actively to fill freshman classes, but students respond in a slow pace

T4  01'57 [181]
Many schools need to meet enrollment goal but fail due to projects stop.

T5  01'16 [189]
Colleges are also uncertain about the 2020 fall.

T6  02'18 [270]
Though colleges wavied enrollment deposit and refunded housing fees, the enrollment would drop.

TR  03'37 [568]
School of proximity are preferred. Courses, tuition and faculty salary are all uncertain. Some students in waiting list get extra chances.

OB  11'53  [1021]
'Credibility Bookcase' gain popularity quickly during quarantine. Many celebrities and expertises joined in the project. The bookcase offers both a visually pleasing surface and a gesture at intellectual depth. However, treating a book as a purely aesthetic object is often seen as an affront to intellectual credibility. The NY Times partially criticizes it.
发表于 2020-5-4 15:08:04 | 显示全部楼层
T2  1'36  [182]
Universities are extending acceptance deadline due to the concern about low enrollment and lost revenue.

T3  0'54  [197]
Schools are trying methods to increase enrollment, while potential students are taking longer time to decide enrollment due to the Covid-19 influence on campus.

T4  1'06 [181]
American higher education was already suffering from financial problems before Covid-19. Now there could be more devastating influence on education.

T5  1'01 [189]
Problems from the school side.

T6  1'19[270]
The number of international students will drop due to the travel ban, and the universities are changing their strategy and focusing in-state students instead.

TR  2'21 [568]
Schools are figuring out ways to ensure the college experience. Students are offered extra opportunities by universities to ensure the enrollment.
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