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[阅读小分队] 【Native Speaker每日训练计划—92系列】【92-11】文史哲

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发表于 2017-8-12 22:48:55 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 微软雅黑 于 2017-8-12 22:54 编辑

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PART I: Speaker


From Alaska To Florida, States Respond To Opioid Crisis With Emergency Declarations

Public health officials and others concerned about the nation's opioid crisis are hailing President Trump's decision to declare it a national emergency. A Presidential commission on opioids said in its interim report that an emergency declaration would allow the administration to take immediate action and send a message to Congress that more funding is needed.

But while the Trump administration prepares the presidential order, governors in six states have already declared emergencies to deal with opioids. They range from Alaska and Arizona in the West to Florida, Virginia, Maryland and Massachusetts in the East.

In Maryland, where 550 overdose deaths were reported in just the first three months of this year, Gov. Larry Hogan declared opioids a public health emergency in March.

"It's a call to order and a call to action," says Clay Stamp, head of Maryland's Opioid Operational Command Center. Stamp comes to the job with a background as an emergency manager and compares this effort to the state's response to a hurricane.

"We need all the right people in the room to make sure we can make a decision in time to move people out of harm's way, shelter them and everything else," he says. "This is no different."

Since declaring an emergency, Maryland has tightened practices for those prescribing opioids and received a waiver to allow Medicaid to pay for residential drug treatment.

Massachusetts was the first state to declare opioids a public health emergency in 2014. Then-Gov. Deval Patrick acted on the recommendations of a special task force, says Michael Barnett, an assistant professor of health policy and management at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health.

The recommendations were "to open up funding for the Department of Public Health — for instance, to open up more treatment beds, to create funding and make it easier for ... first responders to use naloxone, which reverses opioid overdoses in the field," he says.

Making naloxone freely available and putting it in the hands of more people has helped save lives. That has been one of the most immediate impacts of emergency declarations in states that have issued them.

Arizona Gov. Doug Ducey declared a public health emergency in June. Will Humble, executive director for the Arizona Public Health Association says with that declaration, the state began gathering badly needed data on the crisis.

"Who it's hitting, where it's hitting, who is doing the prescribing, what portion of it are fentanyl and heroin and what portion are prescribed pills," he says. "And, as you get that more complete information, it allows you to craft better public policy."

In Florida, the emergency declaration issued in May enabled Gov. Rick Scott to quickly allocate some $27 million in federal funds for drug treatment and prevention.

Palm Beach County, Fla., saw nearly 600 fatal overdoses last year, mostly related to opioids. Alton Taylor, executive director of the county's Drug Abuse Foundation says although the emergency declaration was welcome, Palm Beach County and the rest of the state still don't have enough publicly-funded beds available to treat people with opioid addictions.

"Today as I'm talking to you, we have over 200 people on a waiting list," he says. "These are people where we've done a clinical assessment of them and determined them to be in need of that service."

Despite the emergency declaration, Florida, unlike some other states, hasn't tapped Medicaid to help pay for drug treatment. Taylor says he's hopeful President Trump's emergency declaration, when finalized, will free up more money to treat people in recovery from opioid addictions.


Source: NPR
http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2017/08/11/542836709/from-alaska-to-florida-states-respond-to-opioid-crisis-with-emergency-declaratio

[paraphrase 1, 3:24]


Part II: Speed


Why do stars like Adele keep losing their voice?

[Time 2]
I don’t even know how to start this,” Adele wrote in an online letter to fans on 30 June. The previous night, she had played the second show of a sold-out, four-night residency at Wembley Stadium. These dates, in front of audiences of 98,000, were supposed to be the triumphant conclusion of her record-setting, 123-date world tour. But on stage, something had just felt wrong.

“I’ve struggled vocally both nights,” she wrote. “I had to push a lot harder than I normally do. I felt like I constantly had to clear my throat.” After the second show, Adele went to see her doctor, who told her she had damaged her vocal cords and had no option but to cancel her remaining shows. The most powerful young voice in the music business had fallen silent. “To say I’m heart broken would be a complete understatement,” she wrote.

Though only 29, Adele had been here before. Six years earlier, she had suffered a haemorrhage to her vocal cords after singing live on a French radio program. In order to repair the injury, she underwent an incredibly delicate, high-risk medical intervention: vocal cord microsurgery. In this operation, the surgeon wields miniature scalpels and forceps attached to foot-long poles that are guided down the throat to excise whatever damaged tissue is robbing the vocal cords of their elasticity, and depriving the voice of its natural timbre, range and clarity.

Adele’s surgeon, Dr Steven Zeitels, was after a nasty polyp that had formed under her epithelium, the thin outer layer of the vocal cord. Zeitels carefully snipped the layer with a scalpel, and then, with forceps, pulled back the tissue like a flap, exposing the polyp below. With a second set of forceps he pulled out the gooey, infected mass, and zapped the remaining haemorrhaged surface with a laser to stop the bleeding and prevent scarring.
[311 words]


[Time 3]The margin for error in such surgeries is measured in fractions of a millimetre. You can’t let the instruments touch any healthy tissue. Dig too deep, Zeitels knew, and he would risk damaging the superficial lamina propria, the soft, pliable underlayer of Adele’s vocal cords. If he pierced that, he told me, there would be no way to preserve the power and suppleness of her voice.

On 12 February 2012, three months after her surgery, Adele swept up six awards at the Grammys, including album of the year and song of the year. In her acceptance speech for best pop solo performance, she thanked Zeitels for restoring her voice. To most observers, it was a cheering comeback story, but for a handful of medical specialists it was a watershed moment. For years, vocal cord microsurgery had been considered risky. (In 1997, an unsuccessful surgical procedure left Julie Andrews’ already damaged voice beyond repair.) More than the physical risk, though, singers feared the damage to their careers that could follow if word got out. In the world of showbusiness, it was safer to be seen as a singer with a healthy young voice than as a one-time great with surgically repaired cords.

Now, Adele had suddenly swept away the stigma. In the years since, Zeitels’ business has boomed, along with those of many of his peers. They have no shortage of patients: there is an epidemic of serious vocal cord injuries in the performing arts. In addition to his work on Adele, Zeitels, who directs the Massachusetts General Hospital Center for Laryngeal Surgery and Voice Rehabilitation, has repaired the cords of more than 700 performing artists, including Sam Smith, Lionel Richie, Bono and Cher. Michael Bublé, Keith Urban, Meghan Trainor and Celine Dion have also had to quit touring to get their cords surgically repaired. In a mark of how attitudes to surgery have changed, both Smith and Bublé broke the news of their surgeries to their fans via Instagram.

There is no precise data on the number of performers who have gone under the knife over the years. But several surgeons told me they estimate that vocal cord surgery has been performed on thousands of pop, rock and classical singers, as well as on theatre and stage musical stars. Cancelled shows reverberate across social media and hit a struggling music industry hard. When Adele pulled out of her remaining two Wembley shows this summer, nearly 200,000 tickets had to be refunded. It’s unclear if she will ever tour again.
[419 words]

[Time 4]
After Adele’s 2011 surgery, Zeitels became something of a celebrity. Occasionally, a reporter asked him if Adele was cured for good. He made no assurances, but told Channel 4’s Jon Snow that her surgically repaired voice “sounds smoother now than before”.

While the media was celebrating this miracle surgery, one woman in the music industry raised a dissenting voice. According to Lisa Paglin, a former opera singer turned voice coach, Zeitels had simply found a temporary fix; in the not too distant future, Adele would once again be forced off the stage and back into the operating theatre. It was a prediction that Paglin and Marianna Brilla, her coaching partner, were willing to stake their reputations on. The rash of vocal injuries silencing our most promising young talents, they argued, is too big a problem to be solved by microsurgery.

“How many surgeries would Dr Zeitels consider performing on Adele? Or on anyone? After surgery, unless a singer makes major changes, ‘return to performing’ means a return to the vocal abuse that put her/him on the operating table in the first place,” Paglin wrote, in the small trade publication Intermezzo. “Concerts – injury – surgery – rest – concerts – injury – surgery. Is this the life of a professional singer?”

When Adele cancelled the final nights of her recent tour, Brilla and Paglin felt saddened but vindicated. For more than a decade, they have been pushing for a revolution in the way that almost every modern performer has been taught to use their voice. After years of painstaking research in musical archives, early scientific journals and the classroom, Brilla and Paglin say they can deliver what medical science has failed to: a permanent fix for vocal burnout.

Their solution requires the revival of an all-but-vanished singing method that is not just beautiful to the ear, but also easy on the throat. Some of their ageing and beleaguered clients described it to me as a kind of fountain of youth. But their cure is not without controversy. It is based on a provocative theory that has been gaining ground among a small cadre of international talents: that we have all been singing completely wrong – even Adele.
[361 words]


[Time 5]
Singing is a rough business. Every vocal performance involves hundreds of thousands of micro-collisions in the throat. The vocal cords – also known as vocal folds – are a pair of thin, reed-like, muscular strips located inside the larynx, or voice box, in the throat. They are shaped like a wishbone, and contain the densest concentration of nerve tissue in the body.

When we are silent, the cords remain apart to facilitate breathing. When we sing or speak, air is pushed up from the lungs, and the edges of the cords come together in a rapid chopping motion. The air causes the cords to vibrate, creating sound. The greater the vibration, the higher the pitch. By the time a soprano hits those lush high notes, her vocal cords are thwacking together 1,000 times per second, transforming a burst of air from her lungs into music powerful enough to shatter glass.

Beautiful singing requires lithe cords, but all that slapping together can wear down their fine, spongy surface and lead to tiny contusions. Over years of heavy use, nodules, polyps or cysts form on the vocal folds, distorting the sound they create. For a singer, the first sign of trouble is often the wobble. His pitch fluctuates on and off key because his ragged cords have lost their natural vibrato – their ability to resonate properly. Then there’s the “hole”, a point on the scale where a singer’s vibrating vocal cords fail to produce the proper tone. Try as he might, those notes will exit his mouth flat or, worse, as a barely audible gasp.

It was once unheard-of for a singer to perform with a faulty voice, but the opera world has recently been shaken by a trio of incidents in which the stars Rolando Villazón, Aleksandrs Antonenko and Roberto Alagna walked off stage mid-performance, unable to go on. Some opera singers complain of year-round cold symptoms, and legal steroid injections and other drugs are often used to get a struggling singer through a performance. But singing through the wear and tear can cause the lesions to burst and bleed, creating voice-ruining scars, which is what happened to Adele in 2011.

Voice specialists liken the physical toll on singers and stage performers to what athletes endure. Surgery to the professional singer’s vocal cords is what ligament reconstruction has become to the football player’s knee. Dusty theatres, stuffy airplane cabins, erratic eating and sleeping patterns, the stress of living off stingy contracts – all affect the vocal cords. Add to it the occupational hazard, at least in opera and classical music, of taking on roles that require you to sing above your natural range, and the cords become extremely susceptible to injury.
[447 words]

[Time 6]
In 1986, the conductor, vocal coach and New York Times music critic Will Crutchfield lamented that vocal burnout was cutting short careers and diminishing the power of opera, “as audiences, by necessity, accustom themselves to hearing voices in poor condition”. Back then, Crutchfield saw that singers peaked in their 30s and then began to decline. But Adele, Trainor and Smith all underwent career-saving surgery in their 20s. Vocal burnout is afflicting amateurs, too. One veteran teacher in Italy told me that female students in their early 20s who want to sing like Adele or a young Whitney Houston are the ones who come down with vocal nodules. Another music teacher told me she recently had to instruct one of her 10-year-old students to stop singing and get his damaged cords checked by a specialist.

The rise in vocal injuries is linked to a change in what we consider good singing. Across all genres, it has become normal to believe that louder is better. (One reason that Adele is such a big star is because her voice is so big.) As a result, singers are pushing their cords like never before, which leads to vocal breakdown.

New waves of medical research into the causes of dysphonia, or the inability to properly produce voice, bear this out. In the west, vocal abuse is surprisingly common in all professions that rely on the voice , from schoolteachers to opera singers. Awareness of the problem is growing, but as Adele’s case demonstrated, and separate studies conclude, surgery is not necessarily a lasting fix.

Brilla and Paglin have been saying this for years. “You cannot solve the problem by simply relieving the symptom,” Brilla said. “It’s a motor problem. The singer has to understand it’s the way you’re running your engine” – the techniques they’re using to sing. “If you don’t fix the engine, it’s going to happen again.”

Teatro La Nuova Fenice, a 19th-century opera house built in the neoclassical style, sits at the top of the small hill town of Osimo in central Italy, just inland of the Adriatic Sea. In the grand lobby of the building is a marble plaque commemorating the night in 1927 when the Italian tenor Beniamino Gigli, one of the greatest talents of his era, performed here. Gigli packed concert halls across Europe and the Americas in a career that spanned five decades.
[394 words]

[The Rest]
Gigli is an icon of the purer, more natural singing style that characterised a period when vocal injuries were almost unheard of, say Brilla and Paglin. They have a small teaching studio in a cul-de-sac below La Nuova Fenice. Brilla, a dramatic soprano with a fearless air, first became obsessed with the fragility of the human voice more than 50 years ago, as a teenage opera singer growing up in Pennsylvania coal country. A doctor there diagnosed her with a problem common among young singers with big voices: her vocal cords weren’t coming together properly. She had a hole. Over the next few decades, she cycled through nearly 30 teachers, including legends such as Antonio Tonini and Ellen Faull, trying to learn to sing in a style like Gigli’s – at once powerful, clear and sustainable over the course of many years.

Brilla met Paglin, a lyric soprano who appears small next to Brilla, while studying voice at Indiana University’s school of music. The two bonded over their love for Italian opera and their frustration with the way singing was taught, even by their legendary teacher Margaret Harshaw. Feeling that the giants of music instruction didn’t have the key to vocal longevity, Brilla and Paglin determined that they would be the ones to unlock the secret.

In 1977, Brilla won a prestigious Fulbright scholarship to travel to Italy to search for a way to sing beautifully without risking injury. There, she heard glimpses of perfect arias from older, mostly Italian opera singers who learned their craft in the early 20th century. These singers seemed to effortlessly produce clear, powerful musical tones, and so many of them were still performing with vigour well into their 60s, 70s and 80s. To Brilla, they held a clue to the vocal longevity lost to singers today.

Paglin soon joined her in Rome, where they started spending hours each day at the national sound archive, La Discoteca di Stato, listening to early recordings. They also scoured libraries for texts that discussed how operatic and classical singing techniques had changed over the centuries. When they weren’t researching, they were performing; big talents in their own right, they performed in many of the major opera houses and music halls of Italy and Austria. This put them in the presence of more masters, whom they peppered with questions. They also tracked down other ageing opera stars, teachers and conductors.


Their research pointed Brilla and Paglin to a surprising conclusion: that responsibility for the modern decline of the voice lay at the feet of Verdi, Wagner and Puccini. These three composers were the pop music sensations of their day. Music scholars credit them with being the first to challenge their singers to push their voices to new limits, in order to capture the emotional ups and downs their characters were feeling. Think of the teenage Japanese bride in Puccini’s Madama Butterfly, her heart breaking, desperately watching the seas for a sign her love will return, or the thunderous battle cries of the Valkyries in Wagner’s Ring cycle. If you’re going to kill off the main character of your show, you need genuine rage and pathos on stage.

But Brilla and Paglin heard something different – that the emotionally charged, full-throated, operatic singing style Verdi and Wagner made popular in the late 19th century – and that Puccini amped up even further in the early 20th century – had subsequently infiltrated all singing genres and public performances. With each passing decade, the style grew more extreme. To illustrate the point, when I visited the duo earlier this summer, Paglin pulled from their sprawling research library a file containing a series of images. The first was a photograph, taken in 1920, of the legendary Italian tenor Enrico Caruso mid-aria. Caruso seems to be enjoying himself, even as the camera flashes; it’s as if he’s talking to a friend, not baying at the audience. “This is natural singing,” Paglin said.

As she flipped from image to image, we travelled towards the present, a decade at a time. The photographs of the more contemporary singers – including the tenor Rolando Villazón, who has suffered multiple vocal injuries – looked like horror-movie stills: their mouths were wide open, eyes bulging, neck veins popping, as if they were screaming. There was none of Caruso’s easy calm.

Caruso and Gigli produced legendarily big sounds, but with an effort that today’s performers might deride as somewhat wimpy. Compare Caruso’s 1916 recording of O Sole Mio with Villazón’s 2010 rendition. Caruso’s is powerful, but not so powerful that the lyrics crash into one another and become indecipherable; and even at the height of the aria, he doesn’t drown out the strings. That Brilla and Paglin had identified this contrast wasn’t enough. They wanted to reverse-engineer exactly how Caruso and his contemporaries sang.


In 1983, Brilla convinced Maria Carbone, a retired Italian operatic soprano, to work with them. Carbone was nearing 80, but still had a powerful voice. While Carbone sang, Brilla would clasp Carbone’s abdomen to feel what was happening inside her body. Carbone started with an aria from Tosca. As her voice rose, hitting higher and higher notes, Brilla’s eyes widened. “I could feel this tick, tick. Tick, tick,” she recalled. It was the natural up-down release of her diaphragm. “Nothing else was happening.” Carbone’s ribcage wasn’t ballooning out as she sang, and there were no deep gulps of air, as is common with today’s big-voiced singers. More amazing still, the movement of Carbone’s abdomen while singing was just as quiet and rhythmic as when she spoke. “It was a discovery of what the perfect singer’s posture should be,” Paglin said.

Brilla added: “Whereas all the teachers in my life had been telling me to open, open, open” – to exaggerate her breathing and lunge into every high note to produce the biggest sound – Carbone “was demonstrating the opposite”. The root of the problem, they realised, is in classrooms. “Too many students graduate from conservatories who don’t know how to sing, and it’s leading to injury,” Brilla said. “We’ve got to stop this. It’s ass-backwards!”


Source: The Guardian
https://www.theguardian.com/news/2017/aug/10/adele-vocal-cord-surgery-why-stars-keep-losing-their-voices

Part III: Obstacle


Home Fire by Kamila Shamsie review – a contemporary reworking of Sophocles

In Sophocles’s play Antigone a teenage girl is forced to choose between obeying the law of the land (her uncle, the king of Thebes, has forbidden the burial of a traitor) and religious law (the traitor is Antigone’s brother, Polynices, who has declared war on his city, and killed his own brother, Eteocles, along the way). Antigone’s “good” brother gets a funeral, the “bad” one is left to rot. Leaving a relative unburied is profoundly taboo in ancient Greece, so Antigone must decide: does she obey her conscience and bury Polynices – the punishment for which is the death penalty – or does she obey the law and leave her brother to be picked apart by dogs?

And this, essentially, is the dilemma faced by Aneeka, the beating heart of Home Fire, Kamila Shamsie’s Man Booker-longlisted loose contemporary reworking of Antigone. Her twin brother, Parvaiz, has left London to work for the media arm of Isis, after discovering that his absent father died en route to Guantánamo. Her sister Isma tells the police where he has gone and Aneeka is appalled: “You betrayed us, both of us. And then you tried to hide it from me. Don’t call, don’t text, don’t send the pictures, don’t fly across the ocean and expect me to ever agree to see your face again. We have no sister.” It is a beautifully Sophoclean touch that Aneeka is far angrier with her sister for betraying their brother than she is with her brother for betraying them both.

The build-up to disaster is told with an ever-increasing tension. We begin with Isma, the older sister to the twins, the voice of compromise and accommodation. Her wry cleverness is so compelling that it is difficult not to pine for her in the later stages of the novel, from which she is largely absent (Ismene, in Sophocles’s version of the myth, has only a paltry 60 lines). When Isma first meets Eamonn, the non-religious son of an authoritarian British home secretary who has sought to put his Muslim faith behind him, she is studying in the US and he is there on holiday. “Is that a style thing or a Muslim thing?” he asks, about the turban she wears. “You know,” she replies, “the only two people in Massachusetts who have ever asked me about it both wanted to know if it’s a style thing or a chemo thing.”

There is an undeniable connection between Isma and Eamonn. But on his return to London, he falls for her sister Aneeka, who sees him as a possible ticket home for her lost brother. She is unrepentant for the way she trades on him: “I wanted Eamonn to want to do anything for me before I asked him to do something for my brother. Why shouldn’t I admit it? What would you stop at to help the people you love most?”

In some ways, Shamsie owes a greater debt to Jean Anouilh’s adaptation of Antigone than to the Sophoclean version: for Sophocles, Antigone is the older sister, who acts as she does because she is an extremist. But she is also filled with piety. If Sophocles’s play has a simple message, it is that older generations do not always know better than their children, and that religious duty trumps our obligations to civil society. To put it in terms of a philosophical debate that was much discussed in Athens at the time the play was first performed, phusis – natural law – is more important than nomos – man-made law.

But Anouilh, writing during the second world war, saw things differently. He reversed the birth order of the two sisters: for him, Antigone was not the dutiful older sister, but rather the young rebel. And in Home Fire, Isma is much older. “She’s my sister,” she says of Aneeka. “Almost my child.” This blurring of roles is a neat modern echo of the troubled bloodline of Antigone and Ismene, whose parents were Oedipus – also their half-brother – and Jocasta, who was both their mother and grandmother.

It is in this move away from the earliest incarnations of the myth that Shamsie’s novel is most successful: she drops the incestuous nature of the children’s parentage, and ditches the second brother, so that Parvaiz is guilty of all kinds of things, but not fratricide. This costs her something in the ambivalence the reader must feel about Parvaiz and correspondingly reduces some of the potency of Aneeka’s sacrifice. But it grounds the novel in the here and now, rather than allowing it to slide into melodrama, an undeniable risk with tragedy-turned-fiction – although it perhaps contributes to the novel’s slightly frustrating conclusion.

Shamsie’s prose is, as always, elegant and evocative. Home Fire pulls off a fine balancing act: it is a powerful exploration of the clash between society, family and faith in the modern world, while tipping its hat to the same dilemma in the ancient one.
[817 words]

Source: The Guardian
https://www.theguardian.com/books/2017/aug/10/home-fire-kamila-shamsie-review

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发表于 2017-8-13 02:15:33 | 显示全部楼层
T2 0:57.77
T3 2:14.89
T4 1:46.24
T5 1:12.21
T6 2:19.95
发表于 2017-8-13 05:58:43 | 显示全部楼层
T2  2:24.79  311
T3  3:41.16  419
T4  3.04.46  361
T5  3.09.88  447
T6  2:34.56  394
T7  8:11.00  817
发表于 2017-8-13 08:36:57 | 显示全部楼层
空空空空杯 发表于 2017-8-13 05:58
T2  2:24.79  311
T3  3:41.16  419
T4  3.04.46  361

T2 01:42
T3 02 :22
T4  01:56
T5  02:31
T6   01:59
T7   03:43
T8   03:29
opioid  类鸦片
naloxone   吗啡抗芥药
susceptible  可以接受的
fentanyl   芬太尼
haemorrhage  出血
elasticity  弹性
epithelium  上皮组织
scalpe  手术刀l
forceps  产钳
dissenting   不同意的
vindicated   维护
larynx  喉头
发表于 2017-8-13 08:41:43 | 显示全部楼层
空空空空杯 发表于 2017-8-13 05:58
T2  2:24.79  311
T3  3:41.16  419
T4  3.04.46  361

T2 01:42
T3 02 :22
T4  01:56
T5  02:31
T6   01:59
T7   03:43
T8   03:29
opioid  类鸦片
naloxone   吗啡抗芥药
susceptible  可以接受的
fentanyl   芬太尼
haemorrhage  出血
elasticity  弹性
epithelium  上皮组织
scalpe  手术刀l
forceps  产钳
dissenting   不同意的
vindicated   维护
larynx  喉头
发表于 2017-8-13 09:53:23 | 显示全部楼层
obstacle
中文:古希腊有一部悲剧,讲述了一个女孩在国家与道德准则发生冲突的时候如何选择,而现在这件事情真实的发生在了一个女孩身上,并且文章探讨了古代喜剧和现在这件事人物角色上的不同,并且说明虽然戏剧是古代,但是却也具有普世的意义。

英文:

In the Ancient Play, which was wrote by S, the leading role A faced a dilimema. She had to make a decision between the land law(his uncle ,the empirer, forced to leave traitor unburial) and the religious law(his brother, who betrayed his country, started a war on his city and killed his anther brother). Her"good" brother was buried but her"bad" brother was left to rot. However, according to the her religion, she could not leave her relative's body picked apart by wild dogs.

This story truely happened in our daily time. I, whose brother worked for the media arm of Isis, was the younger sister in her family. Her father was killed on the way to G. Her elder sister A told the police where her brother was. She was quite appalled, because she thought A betrayed her and her brother. Apparently she was angried with A'a betray of her brother than his brother's betray of her family. she angrily expressed that her sister would never expect her to fly across the ocean and see her face again.

A now study in the US. Once she met E. Although E is a muslim, he is non-religious. After he lived in the US, He left his religion behind. He fell for I when he saw her. As for I, E is a ticket for her to? brother. I said that she would ask E to do everything for herself before she asked him to do something for her brother.

What A faced is not exactly the same as that of A in the play.  An is the younger sister, Unlike Ae, who is  the elder sister. for Ae, Is is not only her sister but also her child. For An, she had to coordinate her brother with her father?.

Back to the ancient Athen, the play aroused hot debate in the area of pilosophy.
S's prose is always elegant and thoughful. What's more, the though he expressed not only fits for the ancient time but also reflects the daily time.

有很多错误,一会再读一次


发表于 2017-8-13 10:45:49 | 显示全部楼层
T2 2'30''
T3 3'10''
T4  2'28''
T5 4'30''
T6  2'32''
OB  5'40''
发表于 2017-8-13 11:57:52 | 显示全部楼层
[92-11]文史哲
Speed
T2: 1:34
T3: 2:03
T4: 1:55
T5: 2:21
T6: 1:43
The Rest: 5:20
Obstacles

T: 7:05

文章简介了Kamila Shamsie的Home Fire的读后感,将其与古希腊剧作Antigone,以及二战期间的改编剧本做了对比。

There is a dilemma for one teenage girl to choose between law of land and religious law. She must choose between moral rightness and religious rightness. This is a classic dilemma in Sophocle's play Antigone, as well as in Home Fire, which is a rework of Antigone, and the rework play of Antigone written during world war II.

The difference of these pieces are their plots. But the classic drama collision core is the same. In Home fire, the brother of the girl have headed to fight for Isis after their father died in holly war. The elder sister of the girl "betrayed" the family, according to the girl, by telling the trace of their brother to the police. While in the ancient play, the teen girl has to choose to bury her own brother who is a traitor and leave his body unburied to be tore apart by wild dogs. The Second world war piece was revised as the  older sister in Home fire are the younger rebel.

The author of the ancient play wanted to highlight the fact that younger generations know no less than their elder generations. Home Fire made the elder one much older to let the drama to be more logically clear. The author laid all on the brother fighting for ISIS to make his sisters actions following his actions more reasonably. All in all, Home Fire is written in an elegant way to show us the affect and relationship between society, family just as its ancient original play did.


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