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[阅读小分队] 【Native Speaker每日训练计划—86系列】【86-20】科技

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发表于 2017-4-21 07:48:29 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 喵了个咪hh 于 2017-4-21 07:55 编辑

内容:Cecile Zhang 编辑:Lily Shi

Wechat ID: NativeStudy  / Weibo: http://weibo.com/u/3476904471



Part I: Speaker

Traces of Genetic Trauma Can Be Tweaked
Erika Beras, April 15

Source: ScientificAmerican
https://www.scientificamerican.com/podcast/episode/traces-of-genetic-trauma-can-be-tweaked/

[Rephrase 1, 2:37]




Part II: Speed


Drivers Gear Up For World’s First Nanocar Race
David Castelvecchi, April 19, 2017

Chemists will navigate molecular wagons along a tiny golden track.

[Time 2]
Six teams from three continents are preparing for a unique race on a polished gold track in the south of France this month. But this is no luxurious supercar event: competitors will be racing single molecules. In 36 hours, they aim to move them a distance of 100 nanometres — about one-thousandth the width of a human hair — on a laboratory track held in a vacuum and chilled to a few degrees above absolute zero.

The contest is being billed as the world’s first nanocar race, and the aim is to get people excited about nanotechnology and molecular machines, says co-organizer Christian Joachim, a chemist who works at the Centre for Materials Elaboration and Structural Studies in Toulouse, where the event will take place. He and Gwénaël Rapenne, a chemist at the University of Toulouse-Paul Sabatier, developed the contest after Joachim realized — following an interview with a journalist — that nanocars attracted much more public attention than did his research on fundamental aspects of nanotechnology.
The race may also provide scientific insights for the contestants, who want to learn more about how their individual molecules interact with surfaces. That may help in the design of catalysts and, in the longer term, further the aim of creating molecular-scale technologies for transporting cargo or information, participants say. “It’s a gigantic experiment, performed by many people at the same time,” Joachim says. (Nature Nanotechnology, which is independent of Nature’s news team, is a sponsor of the race.)
[242words]

[Time 3]
Driving with electrons
The term nanocar is actually a misnomer, because the molecules involved in this race have no motors. (Future races may incorporate them, Joachim says.) And it is not clear whether the molecules will even roll along like wagons: a few designs might, but many lack axles and wheels. Drivers will use electrons from the tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) to help jolt their molecules along, typically by just 0.3 nano-metres each time — making 100 nanometres “a pretty long distance”, notes physicist Leonhard Grill of the University of Graz, Austria, who co-leads a US–Austrian team in the race.

Contestants are not allowed to directly push on their molecules with the STM tip. Some teams have designed their molecules so that the incoming electrons raise their energy states, causing vibrations or changes to molecular structures that jolt the racers along. Others expect electrostatic repulsion from the electrons to be the main driving force. Waka Nakanishi, an organic chemist at the National Institute for Materials Science in Tsukuba, Japan, has designed a nanocar with two sets of ‘flaps’ that are intended to flutter like butterfly wings when the molecule is energized by the STM tip (see ‘Molecular race’). Part of the reason for entering the race, she says, was to gain access to the Toulouse lab’s state-of-the-art STM to better understand the molecule’s behaviour.

Eric Masson, a chemist at Ohio University in Athens, hopes to find out whether the ‘wheels’ (pumpkin-shaped groups of atoms) of his team’s car will roll on the surface or simply slide. “We want to better understand the nature of the interaction between the molecule and the surface,” says Masson.


Simply watching the race progress is half the battle. After each attempted jolt, teams will take three minutes to scan their race track with the STM, and after each hour they will produce a short animation that will immediately be posted online. That way, says Joachim, everyone will be able to see the race streamed almost live.
[332words]

[Time 4]
Nanoscale races
Chemists have previously created tiny nanocars with wheels and axles — as well as molecular rotors and switches. The 2016 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, awarded to creators of nanomachines, has renewed interest in the field. However, the Nobel prizewinners worked mainly with large numbers of molecules in solution, Joachim says, whereas the researchers in this race are focusing on the interactions between single molecules and solid surfaces.

But cars on the nanoscale behave nothing like their real-life counterparts, making it hard to find uses for the machines. At these scales, electrostatic forces dominate and random thermal vibrations constantly shake molecules around. Consequently, nano-machines may end up behaving in un-expected or unpredictable ways, Grill says.

The Toulouse laboratory has an unusual STM with four scanning tips — most have only one — that will allow four teams to race at the same time, each on a different section of the gold surface. Six teams will compete this week to qualify for one of the four spots; the final race will begin on 28 April at 11 a.m. local time. The competitors will face many obstacles during the contest. Individual molecules in the race will often be lost or get stuck, and the trickiest part may be to negotiate the two turns in the track, Joachim says. He thinks the racers may require multiple restarts to cover the distance.
[225words]

Source: Nature
http://www.nature.com/news/drivers-gear-up-for-world-s-first-nanocar-race-1.21845


French-election Fears Unite Scientists in Defence of Liberal Democracy
Declan Butler, April 18, 2017

[Time 5]
It is the strangest French presidential election that mathematician Cédric Villani can remember. “It has been like no other,” he says: “hectic, hysterical, and full of twists and turns”. With a few days left before Sunday’s first round of voting, any of four candidates could still reach next month’s second round, a head-to-head run-off between the leading pair. But with many voters undecided, and turnout hard to predict, much could still change.

For scientists in France, the presidential contest is often a chance to debate research and science-related issues. When Nicolas Sarkozy was elected a decade ago, for example, university reforms and environmental policy featured prominently in the campaigns. But this time, science has barely been mentioned — elbowed out by political scandals and the rise of Marine Le Pen’s far-right Front National party.

Le Pen has dominated much of the discussion about the election — to the dismay of those who oppose her nativist and nationalistic policies. Critics say that Le Pen, and the co-opting by mainstream parties of many of her themes, poses a serious threat to the pluralism and values of France’s liberal democracy. As a consequence, many researchers in France have told Nature that they are less concerned, in this election, about candidates’ stances on scientific issues than they are about broader political issues, and that their focus is stopping Le Pen and the spread of her ideas.

Le Pen has consistently led polls of first-round voting intentions, along with Emmanuel Macron, who heads En Marche!, a centrist movement that he created last year: each has around 22–23% of poll support. Jean-Luc Mélenchon, a far-left candidate of the party La France Insoumise, has surged in recent weeks to around 19–20% — catching up with François Fillon, the official candidate of the main centre-right party, Les Républicains. Trailing below 10% is Benoît Hamon, the official candidate of the main centre-left Parti Socialiste.
[314words]

[Time 6]
Since Le Pen took the helm of the Front National six years ago, she has professionalized and invigorated the party machinery, and tried to present a softer image, says Daniel Stockemer, a political scientist at the University of Ottawa. But the party founded by her father, Jean-Marie Le Pen, in the early 1970s remains extremist and illiberal, says Stockemer: “The core programme is the same; all that has changed is its communication strategy.” For all the political jitters, a Le Pen victory is “impossible”, Stockemer thinks. Le Pen’s core electorate still consists largely of people with extremist right-wing views, he says, which puts a ceiling on the number of voters she can attract in a head-to-head run-off. “The Front National is not the catch-all party that is needed to win a presidential election,” he says.

Villani, who directs the Henri Poincaré Institute in Paris, also highlights the threat that Le Pen poses to the European Union. She has promised to renegotiate France’s terms of membership with the EU, and to hold a referendum on the country’s place in the bloc and on leaving the euro currency. Last month, in response, Villani joined the campaign of Macron — the most pro-European candidate. Macron is also widely considered best placed to roundly defeat Le Pen in a head-to-head.

Le Pen has a vision of a society closed in upon itself, while researchers tend to have an international outlook, says Édouard Brézin, an emeritus theoretical physicist at the École Normale Supérieure in Paris and former president of the French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS). “Any French retreat from Europe would be far more significant than Brexit,” adds Brézin.

As well as holding numerous interviews, Nature e-mailed more than 3,500 scientists in France, requesting them to take part in an anonymous online survey. The results, from 173 researchers who had replied by 17 April, are far from a representative poll of scientists’ voting intentions, but reflect a trend among some French researchers to veer to the left of the political spectrum. They show Macron as the clear frontrunner, well ahead of Mélenchon and Hamon, and even further ahead of Fillon, with almost no support for Le Pen.
[363words]

[The Rest]
Asked expressly to comment on research policy priorities for France’s next president, survey respondents said they would like to see more funding for basic and long-term research; more science on topics directly relevant to citizens, such as agriculture and the environment; and a simplification of complex grant-application procedures. In fact, continuity is the most likely outcome for France’s research policies after the elections, says Rémi Barré, a science-policy expert and an emeritus researcher at the National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts in Paris. Reforms instigated under the presidencies of Jacques Chirac and Nicolas Sarkozy, and refined under François Hollande — such as efforts to give universities more independence from the state — are likely to carry on. Economic constraints mean that the next president and government will probably have little opportunity to raise research budgets significantly, he says.
[136words]

Source: Nature
http://www.nature.com/news/french-election-fears-unite-scientists-in-defence-of-liberal-democracy-1.21844



Part III: Obstacle


Global Coalition Chips Away at Neglected Tropical Diseases
Amy Maxmen, April 18, 2017

Partnerships see some success in eliminating illnesses, but challenges, such as access to treatments, remain.

[Paraphrase 7]
As a physician in Tanzania, Upendo Mwingira has little to offer people suffering from elephantiasis, an incurable condition characterized by swollen, wrinkled limbs. “When they enter the clinic, they smell, their wounds are oozing and, as a doctor, the best thing I can do is help them accept their situation,” says Mwingira, who directs the neglected-tropical-diseases division of Tanzania’s Ministry of Health in Dar es Salaam.

But patients with the condition have become an increasingly rare sight in her clinics. A global effort to curb the disease that results in elephantiasis, called lymphatic filariasis, has sent the number of new cases plummeting in Tanzania and at least 18 other countries. Seven more nations, including Cambodia and Sri Lanka, have in the past year eliminated it. The prevalences of other neglected tropical diseases that affect the world’s poorest people have been dropping too. But health officials are not resting on their laurels. Even as they celebrate these victories, they are meeting this week in Geneva, Switzerland, to ramp up their efforts to combat the diseases.

They will make plans to treat the hundreds of millions of people who still need it, and to comp up with ways to reach communities located far from health services. Several groups will also announce extra funding to fight neglected diseases. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation in Seattle, Washington, plans to commit another US$335 million to the cause, and the UK Department for International Development (DFID) will contribute £360 million (US$450 million).

Neglected tropical diseases affect roughly 1 billion people worldwide and kill about 534,000 each year, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). But drug companies and science agencies in rich countries tend to ignore these maladies because they almost exclusively afflict the world’s poorest people. The Gates Foundation threw its energy into fighting these illnesses starting in 1999, when it realized that a relatively small investment could dramatically improve millions of lives, says cofounder Bill Gates. It estimates that a package to treat or prevent several neglected diseases costs around $0.50 per person.

Better together
Gates told Nature that recent successes are the result of global partnerships between governments, companies and nongovernmental organizations that have formed over the past decade. Multiple groups, including the Gates Foundation, the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and the DFID, signed a global agreement in 2012 called the London Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases to eliminate or reduce the prevalence of ten neglected diseases by 2020.

Five of the targeted diseases, such as lymphatic filariasis and leprosy, can be prevented with drugs. Treatments are the only option for the other five, including visceral leishmaniasis (or kala-azar) — a potentially fatal disease spread by sandflies — and river blindness.

Pharmaceutical companies have been donating drugs for these illnesses for more than a decade, but the lack of reliable distribution systems has often kept people from receiving treatment.

Since 2006, USAID has been trying to fix that issue. One way is by funding nongovernmental organizations that ensure community workers in remote towns have the tools that they need to treat the ill. As a result, more than 1.6 billion treatments, worth an estimated US$11.1 billion, have gone to 31 countries.

More than 300 million people who required preventive treatments for at least one neglected disease five years ago no longer need them because transmission has dramatically slowed, thanks to mass drug administration, according to the World Health Organization. Cases of treatable diseases are dropping, too: since 2005, kala-azar has decreased by 82% in India, Nepal and Bangladesh. Sleeping sickness has plummeted in Africa by 89% since 2000.

Rough road ahead
But to stamp out the ten conditions listed on the London Declaration, millions of people around the world still require treatments and cures. Scientists could help to speed up progress by considering the challenges in places where neglected diseases occur, says David Molyneux, a parasitologist at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, UK. For example, strategies to train and pay health workers to spot early signs of infection might save more lives than sequencing parasitic genomes.

And simple tests for detecting several neglected diseases would also be advantageous for people around the world, says Tom Frieden, a former CDC director.

All of this work requires money, which might be a problem if the US Congress approves President Donald Trump's request to cut the budget of the state department and USAID by 37%. “Any drop of funding in this area will lead to more death and more suffering,” Gates says.

However, the partnerships formed over the past five years provide a kind of safety net. And the fact that the United Nations chose alleviation of poverty as its first Sustainable Development Goal — a list of targets for 2016–30 made by global leaders to improve the world — gives researchers such as Molyneux hope. “Unless you are going to do something about these diseases, people in poverty will continue to be constrained by poverty.”
[825words]

Source: Sciencenews
http://www.nature.com/news/global-coalition-chips-away-at-neglected-tropical-diseases-1.21842




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发表于 2017-4-21 08:17:41 | 显示全部楼层
T2 01:08
T3 01:23
T4 01:03
T5 01:42
T6 01:57
发表于 2017-4-21 09:01:35 | 显示全部楼层
T2 1’29 [242words]
T3 2’29 [332words]
T4 1’34 [225words]
T5 2’50 [314words]
发表于 2017-4-21 09:13:03 | 显示全部楼层
T2 1.42.70
T3 2.30.87
T4 1.48.44
T5 3.02.06
T6 3.11.41
T7 6.43.11
发表于 2017-4-21 09:19:05 | 显示全部楼层
T2:1’41’’
A nanocar race was held in he south of France this month. Racing single molecules will move a distance of 100 nanometers.This race attracted much attention
T3:2’10’’
Scientists wanted to find out whether the molecules will even roll or slide.
and some conjectures for the nanocar
T4:1’17’’
Nanocar has been studied before with a large number of molecules but this nano car race focuses on the interaction between single molecules and solid surfaces
T5:2’27’’
This French election is the most hectic one and full of twists and turns.For the sceientists the presidential contest is often a chance to debate research and science-related issues. But this time science has barely been mentioned.
Le Pen and his far-right Front National Party domain must of the discussion.
T6+the rest: 4’04’’
Scientist took part in an online survey and  showed no support for Le Pen and her right-wing.But no  matter what is the outcome of the election, reforms are likely to carry on and the research budget have little opportunity to raise.
发表于 2017-4-21 09:26:40 | 显示全部楼层
Time 2 1"13 200wpm

Time 3 1"37 204wpm

Time 4 1"19 170wpm

Time 5 1"52 168wpm

Time 6 1"45 207wpm
发表于 2017-4-21 09:39:38 | 显示全部楼层
1:06
1:25
1:01
1:24
1:46
3:58
发表于 2017-4-21 10:56:48 | 显示全部楼层
T2: 00:01:50/242
introduce a nanocar race. (the meaning for both public & scientist)
T3: 00:02:27/332
what is nanocars.(how to drive) & post the race online.
T4: 00:01:36/225
introduce race's information:
--This race is different from the previous research (large number--singer)
--the unexpected part of this race
--race place + time
T5: 00:02:10/314
--Background : France election, strangest
--Strange point: scientist issue is not concerned, and give the reason(focus on LP far-right politics)
--current election polls
T6: 00:03:15/363
Analyze why LP part cannot win & LP threat
Finally give the survey for researchers (although sample is small, refecting a trend)
发表于 2017-4-21 11:27:12 | 显示全部楼层
T2 01:50.19
T3 01:52.15
T4 01:19.63
T5 01:49.27
T6 02:30.97
The rest 00:46.49
发表于 2017-4-21 12:18:47 | 显示全部楼层
2        1‘58/242
3        2'27/332
4        1'43/225
5        2'14/314
6        2'57
7        5'38/825
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