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[阅读小分队] 【Native Speaker每日训练计划—88系列】【88-09】经管

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发表于 2017-5-19 22:30:43 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
内容:Cathy Ha 编辑:Cathy Ha

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Part I: Speaker

Ford Layoffs Represent Latest Loss For Auto Industry After Record Sales
by Sonari Glinton | May 18, 2017

Source: NPR NEWS
http://www.npr.org/2017/05/18/528998569/ford-layoffs-represent-latest-loss-for-auto-industry-after-record-sales

[Rephrase 1, 03:49]


Part II: Speed


For China's 'New Silk Road,' Ambitious Goals And More Than A Few Challenges
by Anthony Kuhn | May 16, 2017

[Time 2]
Over the weekend, China pledged tens of billions of dollars in infrastructure financing and development aid, and elicited support from scores of countries to promote economic integration and free global trade through the creation of what Beijing is calling a "new Silk Road."

Twenty-nine heads of state and representatives of more than 130 countries attended the two-day Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation in Beijing. At its conclusion, leaders signed a communiqué espousing a "shared commitment to building an open economy, ensuring free and inclusive trade [and] opposing all forms of protectionism."

The plan would, in theory, create a network of trade routes, rail lines, ports and highways, linking countries on four continents. China is calling it the "plan of the century."

So far, nearly 70 countries have signed agreements with China to participate in the initiative, known as One Belt, One Road. Many of China's Asian neighbors are sorely in need of infrastructure investment and development aid.

While some details remain sketchy — and some countries are skeptical or sitting things out for now — China has elevated the plan to a national strategy. It is also President Xi Jinping's signature foreign policy.

In his opening speech, Xi described the Silk Road that connected Europe and Asia some two millennia ago, and conjured up images of camel caravans carrying goods and ideas among ancient empires.

"This part of history shows that civilization thrives with openness," he said, "and nations prosper through exchange."

(Some historians argue that the actual Silk Road differed from the mythological one described by China's current government. But no public challenges to the narrative were heard at the forum.)

Xi announced more than $100 billion in infrastructure financing for the project — some through a Silk Road Fund, some through Chinese government policy banks like the China Import-Export Bank and China Development Bank.

But he also described China as a provider of public goods and a bringer of prosperity, security and environmental protection.
[325 words]

[Time 3]
"We should intensify counter-terrorism efforts, address both its symptoms and root causes, and strive to eradicate poverty and social injustice," he said.

Zhao Hong, a Southeast Asia expert at Xiamen University, says this represents an attempt by China to improve its foreign investment policies. China has only become a net exporter of capital and builder of big foreign infrastructure projects in the past decade or so, and its learning curve has been steep.

"China's cooperation has mostly been government-to-government," notes Zhao. "China did not fully consider local people's feelings about the projects. China is now in the process of adjusting these policies."

In countries such as Myanmar and Sri Lanka, citizens have opposed Chinese investments, whose terms they saw as unfavorable. Some projects have imposed onerous financing costs, which leave the countries deep in debt.

There has been little effort to assess or publicize the environmental impact of certain projects. Others have relied mostly on Chinese labor, creating few local jobs.

In countries like Myanmar and Pakistan, Chinese-backed pipelines and highways traverse areas plagued by ethnic insurgencies, necessitating spending on security for the projects and raising concerns that they could be the target of insurgent attacks. At home, some critics point out that China is still a developing country, parts of which are mired in poverty, and cannot afford to be so generous to other nations.

Another major concern is that China is trying to create a new international order with itself at the helm.

Xi tried to dispel such suspicions, saying, "We have no intention to interfere in other countries' internal affairs, export our own social system and model of development or impose our will on others."

He added: "We will not resort to outdated geopolitical maneuvering."

But Zhao Hong observes that China sees the Belt and Road initiative domestically as a top-priority geopolitical strategy. In recent years, he says, China has felt hemmed in by the U.S. and its ring of alliances with Japan, the Philippines and Australia — especially during the Obama administration's pivot to Asia.

"So if China could find a way out to the west," Zhao says, "then it could relieve this pressure coming from the east."

Zhao says so far, the strategy seems to be working. A change of presidents in the Philippines and the U.S. withdrawal from the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement, which excludes China, have helped.
[392 words]

[Time 4]
An important part of the Belt and Road initiative has been to build energy pipelines directly to China's western provinces through Myanmar and Pakistan, bypassing a potential choke point in the Strait of Malacca.

Several leaders have voiced support for China's idea that development will help alleviate security problems, including terrorism.

"This is going to be the kind of initiative that will put an end to terrorism," Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan told the Beijing forum.

India is one notable holdout. It boycotted the Beijing gathering because China's energy and economic corridor in Pakistan cuts through parts of Kashmir claimed by both India and Pakistan. China insists it takes no side in the dispute.

The U.S.'s initial skepticism toward One Belt, One Road appears to have been tempered by the participation of many of its allies and partners, such as the U.K.

"As China drives forward the Belt and Road initiative from the east," British Chancellor of the Exchequer Philip Hammond told the forum, "we in Britain are a natural partner in the west" — especially, he added, "as we leave the European Union."

Although the U.S. is not yet a member of the initiative, it sent a delegation led by Matthew Pottinger, East Asia director on the National Security Council.

"U.S. firms have a long and successful track record in global infrastructure development," Pottinger told the forum, "and are ready to participate in 'Belt and Road' projects."

China has scheduled its next summit to discuss the Belt and Road initiative in 2019. Zhao Hong cautions that for now, the initiative is largely a vision. Relatively little of the money pledged has actually been invested — and it could take decades for the plan's framework to be built out.

China conceived many of the projects long before including them under the initiative. Others, like plans for a mega-region around the Chinese capital, seem to have scant relevance to the Belt and Road.

This has not stopped China from launching a massive propaganda and marketing effort targeting foreign audiences. State-run media including the People's Daily and China Daily newspapers have all recently put out cheerful videos featuring young foreigners singing the praises of the Belt and Road initiative.
[365 words]

Source: NPR NEWS
http://www.npr.org/sections/parallels/2017/05/16/528611924/for-chinas-new-silk-road-ambitious-goals-and-more-than-a-few-challenges



Do your filters stop you from hearing?

by Peter Vajda | May 08, 2017

[Time 5]
Try this visualization exercise. Imagine going through your day with large coffee-maker filters over your ears. Imagine that in each conversation you experience, the other person's words travel through the filters covering your ears before actually entering your ears and reaching your brain.

But this isn’t an exercise. It happens every time you engage in a conversation with another human being, although for the most part, it is unconscious. The point here is to become aware of the (unconscious) listening filters each of us develops early in life and carries with us into adulthood.

I'm bad: For example, if you grew up with a highly critical parent or caregiver, you may have created a self-image filter that now translates as: "I'm bad. I've done something wrong”. This then becomes a listening filter that taints many of the communications you hear, because you’re unconsciously listening out for the other person to make a critical judgment of you.

So, for example, if your boss, a colleague or your partner says to you “I’m feeling upset right now,” you immediately look at yourself and begin to search for what you've done or not done to cause this person to be upset with you rather tha just accepting what they said and taking it in objectively without any self-accusation.

I need to fix you: Another habit that you may have picked up in childhood is the "listening to fix" filter. When this filter is active, you might respond to your boss' or partner’s comment by saying, “Why don’t you sit down and relax for a few minutes," because you feel you need to prescribe to, or "fix" someone.

I need to judge you: If you've grown up with the belief that you have to be a judge of others' actions, your listening filter might lead you to respond, for example, with “You’ve had such an easy morning, what do you have to be upset about?”

Look what just happened to me! : If you have been raised as one who constantly compares yourself to others, you might respond with “You think you’re upset, let me tell you about how upset I am!". This grows out of a need to hijack another's experience and make it your own; the conversation then morphs into a conversation that is "all about me".

Other popular filters include: listening for approval, listening to control (or avoid being controlled), listening to minimize, listening to prove or disprove something.

Listening but not hearing

When we listen through a filter, we are "listening", but we’re not "hearing." When our filters are engaged, we miss what is being said and when we miss the meaning, the energy underneath the words and the emotional content of the message, we’re likely to react unconsciously rather than respond meaningfully.
[463 words]

[Time 6]
The trouble is that when we simply react, we tend to distort the message and its meaning, and direct our conversation and attention to the distortion rather than to what was actually said. And that leaves us unable to connect with another's actual words and experience and unable to respond in a conscious, creative, or supportive way.

Learning to listen

As in all change, awareness is the first step. So the first step toward becoming free of your listening filters is to become aware of them. Most of us have a few primary listening filters and several secondary ones. It may also be that you engage specific listening filters with certain people or in certain situations. For example, you might listen to "fix" with your spouse or partner, and listen "for approval" with your boss, or vice-versa.

The moment you become aware that you’re listening through a filter during a conversation, your awareness expands beyond them. It’s like consciously removing the things that are covering your ears. Suddenly you can hear what other people are actually saying and you start to engage with another on a higher level with real connectivity. So, for example, you might even start to hear someone at work as a real persona rather than a "function".

As your awareness expands beyond your listening filters, you can also make new communication choices. For example, you might respond to “I’m feeling upset right now” with: “I hear that you’re feeling upset. How are you experiencing that right now?” Or “What’s that like for you?” or “Can you say more about that?” These kinds of filter-free communications can meet the other person’s experience and open the door for a conversation to evolve in more constructive ways.

So, be gentle with yourself and give yourself plenty of time to uncover your unique assortment of listening filters. Often as one disappears, another is revealed. Make it a game to notice your filters, love yourself for having them and see how many other ways you can invent to shift out of them. If you’re like me, when you do this, you may experience real "hearing" for the first time.

Identifying your filters

Consider the following filters. Do you use one or more of them in your conversations? If you do, there is no way you can be truly and sincerely "present" with the other person.

advising: "I think you should..." "How come you didn't?"
one-upping: "That's nothing; let me tell you what I did..." (also "hijacking")
educating: "This could work out very well for you if you..."
consoling: "Don't blame yourself; you did the best you could..."
story-telling: "That reminds me of the time..." (also hijacking")
shutting down: "Don't worry about it; cheer up!"
sympathizing: "Oh, poor you...."
interrogating: "Well, why did you..."
explaining: "What I would have done is..." (also "hijacking")
correcting: "That's not what happened..."
[476 words]

Source: Management. Issues
http://www.management-issues.com/opinion/6917/do-your-filters-stop-you-from-hearing/

Part III: Obstacle


Dow Chemical shows how American industrials and globalisation mix
Print edition | May 20, 2017

[Paraphrase 7]
WHAT does it take for an American industrial champion to succeed in an age of globalisation and impatient investors? Some observers argue that it has become impossible. The world is just too nasty and unfair, they bleat. Perhaps they should take a look at Dow Chemical, a firm born in Michigan in 1897 that has hustled hard enough to be at the top of its industry 120 years later.

When Dow completes its planned $130bn merger with DuPont, a longtime rival, probably at the end of this year, it will become the largest chemical company in the world by sales. This new colossus will keep changing—in 2018-19 the plan is for it to split into three specialised firms. “New Dow” will focus on selling chemicals to the automotive, construction and packaging industries. The other two smaller companies will concentrate mainly on the agricultural and electronics industries.

This is a good moment, before the three-way split, to take stock. Being in the chemicals business is like swimming in a vat of sulphuric acid. Of the industry’s 20 largest firms in 1996 only four remain in the ranking today. Some were dissolved, such as ICI, a British company. There has been one spectacular bankruptcy in recent memory, with LyondellBasell defaulting on $24bn of debt in 2009. It is unlikely to be the last.

The industry is brutal. Its customers have consolidated and boosted their bargaining power in the past 20 years. Consumer-goods and car firms, for example, have completed mergers worth $16trn. The prices of its raw materials, oil and gas, gyrate. It is capital-intensive: a “cracker”, or petrochemical plant, costs $2bn or more and takes years to build. And private firms must compete with state-owned ones from China and the Middle East, which have access to subsidised credit and raw materials.

That was the landscape when Dow’s boss, Andrew Liveris, took over in 2004. Since then the firm has made big mistakes. After the financial crisis, in 2009, it had to cut its dividend (for the first time in 97 years) after mismanaging its finances. But three initiatives have kept its underlying business competitive.

First, Dow has ruthlessly shuffled its portfolio, ditching less profitable businesses, including its century-old chlorine operation, and buying specialised ones that have barriers to entry. When it is formed, New Dow will have $50bn of sales, and will have bought and sold businesses with $40bn of sales since 2004.

Second, Dow has made an effort to think hard about customers as well as chemistry. It reorganised around categories of client, and boosted research and development (R&D) in order to conjure up new ways to help them. For the automotive industry, for example, Dow used to supply rubber and polystyrene. Now it sells carmakers expensive sound-absorbing foam. Each year 5,000 products are launched, double the number of a decade ago.

The third step was to invest heavily in plant to lower costs. Dow has sunk $8bn into complexes in the Mexican Gulf coast that have access to cheap shale gas. And it has invested about $4bn in a joint venture in Saudi Arabia with Aramco, the state oil firm, that can take advantage of Aramco’s access to low-cost oil.

Some of Dow’s shareholders have been just as intractable as its industry. In 2014 Third Point, an activist fund, attacked it, calling for it to break itself up. Dow gave it two board seats out of a total of 13. Since then, with Third Point holding a gun to its head, Dow has produced steady earnings and sped up its reinvention. Mr Liveris says he learned to have a “dual horizon”, with one eye on the one-to-two-year perspective of the stockmarket and the other on the longer time periods—a decade or more—that it takes for a cracker or R&D project to wash its face.

Stay paranoid

Investors can see the results of Dow’s struggle. Gross margins have risen. Return on capital is low, partly because it overspent on acquisitions. But as the Mexican Gulf and Saudi projects come on stream over the next two years, profits are expected to increase, notes Hassan Ahmed of Alembic Global, a research firm. After the merger with DuPont, Dow’s return should rise above 15%, putting it in the industry’s first quartile. Its shares have kept pace with the S&P 500 index in the past decade and are valued on a higher multiple of free cashflow than Alphabet, Google’s parent.

Dow also shows that success can be good for employees as well as shareholders. Largely due to the purchase and sale of different businesses, staff turnover has been high: a third joined in the past five years. But the number of employees has risen by over a fifth since 1996, to 56,000, about half of them in America.

Another measure to look at is the “labour share”, or the proportion of the firm’s gross cashflow that is spent on wages, as opposed to reinvestment or giving shareholders dividends and buy-backs. Across American business the share of cashflow that goes to labour has declined markedly. At Dow it has remained flat, at about 50% since 1996. In absolute terms its salary bill has soared (see chart).

If there is a grumble about the example that Dow sets, it is that consumers may lose from consolidation. Firms may be able to jack up prices. Still, this risk is biggest in agricultural chemicals, rather than the industrial ones that New Dow will specialise in. Antitrust regulators will probably allow the Dow-DuPont deal.

Chemical firms can never rest easy. Car sales are flagging in America, which could hurt demand. China’s two giants, ChemChina and Sinochem, may soon merge and could eventually threaten their more sophisticated Western rivals. The cycle is not dead: a spike in gas prices, relative to oil prices, could hurt Dow’s margins. But the chemical industry’s capital base has grown by only 1% a year for the past half-decade: firms are being disciplined about adding new capacity. And Western ones have learned to keep adapting. The lesson from Dow is that American industrial companies can prosper in a system of open borders and capital flows. It isn’t easy but it is possible. Mr Liveris leads President Trump’s advisory council on manufacturing. He should pass on the message.
[1045 words]

Source: The Economist
http://www.economist.com/news/business/21722211-it-has-also-managed-maintain-share-cash-going-labour-dow-chemical-shows-how





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发表于 2017-5-19 23:05:35 | 显示全部楼层
The whole essay explain why DOW keep a lot of market share in America.In DOW history,the financial crisis cause harm to the company.How did it overcome?It came up with three solution:huffled its portfolio,DOW close a lot of unprofitable companies and switch it forcus on profitable things;It put more emphasis on customers,cares about how to keep customers;Invest heavily in plant to lower costs.
After the three strategic planing, the Dow’s Gross margins have risen. Return on capital is low.success can be good for employees as well as shareholders.
发表于 2017-5-19 23:46:12 | 显示全部楼层
3.17
3.24
4.24
3.58
2.25
发表于 2017-5-20 08:18:43 | 显示全部楼层
5.20   88-09
T2   2:32.23
T3   3:21.58
T4   3:08.23
T5   3:25.64
T6   3:57.73
发表于 2017-5-20 19:22:32 | 显示全部楼层
2.   2:45
3.   3:10
4.   3:12
China's one belt, one road strategy will help it to promote its development and the facilities of nations around. This strategy helps China go west and against the potential threatens from the east. But it still takes a long time and a lot of money to invest.
5,6 重复了
Obstacle.   8:00
Core: Dow gives American chemical companies a example to strive and adapt the globalization by opening the borders and flowing the capitals.
       Chemical companies always have tough times, with the raising cost of raw materials, a strong disire of the consumers to bargain, a fierce competition and strong rivals, business circles and other kind of problems.
       Row, an almost the biggest chemical company once, has divided into 3 companies which increased its specialization and adopted 3 strategies to survive in the competition. First, it stitched the less profitable business. Second, it managed to think from the consumer's side. Third, it invested large money in plants. Both the employees and the shareholders were benefited from its operation. The number of the employees increased and the labour share strategy is popular in Dow.
发表于 2017-5-20 22:09:28 | 显示全部楼层
t2: 02:13:21
t3: 02:45:91
t4: 02: 21:32
t5: 03:17:30
t6: 02: 41:61
发表于 2017-5-20 23:13:42 | 显示全部楼层
2017.5.20
[88-09-经管]

#Speed#       
《T2-325/1'24''wpm》
《T3-392/1'45''wpm》
《T4-365/1'34''wpm》
《T5-463/1'57''wpm》
《T6-476/1'59''wpm》
发表于 2017-5-21 00:34:21 | 显示全部楼层
T1 2'04"19
T2 2'30"32
T3 2'08"50
OB 7'25"78
发表于 2017-5-21 01:06:23 | 显示全部楼层
T2 01:45.12
T3 01:35.12
T4 02:14.34
T5 02:24.18
T6 02:45.53
发表于 2017-5-21 01:15:19 | 显示全部楼层
T2 01’35
T3 01’48
T4 01’39
T5 02’55
T6 03’01
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